Management Challenges in the identification of Organizational Identity and Corporate Reputation as Intangible Assets pp173‑184
Abstract: Based on intellectual capital models and reports, companies identify and define Organizational Identity and Corporate Reputation as strategic intangible assets capable of generating sustainable competitive advantages. From an interpretative pers pective, Organizational Identity is the result of a social process of self‑description and it reflects internal stakeholders general agreement on who they are as an organization. From a perceptive paradigm, Corporate Reputation is the result of a socia l process that occurs on the external stakeholders level and it reflects their perception on what the organization assumes to be. We propose a theoretical and empirical analysis, based on the case study strategy, of the relationships and differences be tween these two concepts. We aim to highlight the variables that are critical for managing a companys Intellectual Capital focusing on the social processes of developing the Organizational Identity. The result is the identification of cultural intangible assets that practically represent the memes, that is, ideas, style or behavior that spread from person to person in an organization.
Keywords: Keywords: corporate reputation, intangible assets, interpretative approach, knowledge management, new technology based firms, organizational identity
Abstract: Social media is no longer a negligible phenomenon; tools like Facebook, LinkedIn or YouTube have taken the world in a storm. Social media has become a mainstream, modified personal relationships, allowed individuals to contribute to number of is sues and generated new possibilities and challenges to facilitate collaboration. Organizations have urgent need of not only focusing on innovation of new products and services, but also paying specific attention to effective knowledge sharing, which is of vital importance for their success. The potential advantage of embracing and implementing social media is enormous. Although the interest in social media is increasing, on the one hand knowledge workers and managers are waiting to get involved in this co llaborative world, because they may not feel motivated or may not be aware of the advantages of using these tools for work purposes. On the other hand, organizations do not tend to allow their employees to use social media technologies because they may be concerned about the risks and consequences of a potential misuse. Our exploratory survey investigates how internal or external social media technologies are being used for knowledge sharing during work or for professional development. The study was accom plished with the help of enterprises and institutions operating in Hungary from profit and non‑profit sectors, applying quantitative research methods. In total 299 individuals participated by completing the online, web‑based questionnaire. The results hav e shown that Hungarian organizations prefer not to allow the usage of external social media; but where the employees are supported to reach these tools, high proportion of the people utilize them. The paper provides recommendations to the organizations ho w to foster motivating employees for using social media technologies for work purposes in knowledge sharing. In the discussion, a short summary of our study, managerial implications and new research direction are presented.
Keywords: Keywords: Knowledge sharing, social media technologies, Hungarian research, exploratory survey, business
Intellectual Capital in Manufacturing and Service Firms of the Dominican Republic: An Exploratory Approach pp198‑208
Abstract: This paper analyses 64 variables related to the intellectual capital of manufacturing and service firms in the Dominican Republic. In addition, the study included 10 control variables related to firms characteristics, and 10 variables related to firms performance, for a total of 84 variables. The main findings show that business performance in manufacturing firms relies mainly on relational capital and depends to a lesser extent on human capital, and that innovative performance depends on a closer relation between human and structural capital. In the case of service firms, both business and innovative performance rely on structural and relational capital, indicating the role of suppliers as a potential source of innovations.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to show how managing human capital companies are able to enhance their corporate reputation and financial performance. In particular, this preliminary study analyses the impact of human capital on reputation perceived by employees and financial performance (by means of the return on capital employed ‑ROCE‑). Using a database of Spanish audit sector and applying an exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, three factors of human capital are obtained (Staff Quality, Staff Management and Staff Results) which have been related to the dimensions of employees views of reputation and ROCE through a path analysis. The results reveal that staff quality (firms with creative employees, who perform their best and think act ions through, and where there is no trouble if individuals left) has a significant and positive influence on all the dimensions of reputation. Staff management (firms with clear recruitment and succession training programs, upgrade employees skills and employees who give their all) has a significant and positive impact on resource management, ethics and media reputation. Staff results (employees are satisfied and they do not have to bring down to others level) have a positive and significant effect on business leadership, resource management, ethics and media reputation. No significant effects are found in when human capital factors and financial performance are linked as a consequence of the financial crisis. We also obtained unexpected results in the impact of reputation perceived by employees on financial performance. In any case, a practical implication for these results is that service companies which manage adequately their human capital can increase the employee views of corporate reputation , having the factor Staff Quality a double significant and positive influence on reputation than other two factors.
Keywords: Keywords: human capital factors, corporate reputation, financial performance, Spanish audit firms.
Abstract: In this paper we analyze the book that was hailed by Paul Krugman and the Financial Times as the book of the Year of 2014, through the lenses of the Intellectual Capital. Published in French in 2013, and translated into English in 2014, Thomas P ikettys Capital in the 21st century became a worldwide sensation and best seller because of the deepness of its analysis and the controversy of its findings. In a nutshell Piketty claims that contrary to the neoclassical forecast, the Inequality in the world might grow, due to a shock between forces of convergence and forces of divergence. Furthermore, Piketty also claims that only redistribution policies can reduce the inequality trend, and calls for a new set of social policies. All this is very impre ssive but for us what matters most is how to put IC in the analysis. In this context we analyze Pikettys ideas using the concepts and theories on Intellectual Capital (Bonfour and Edvinsson 2005; Edvinsson and Malone, 1997; Kaplan and Norton, 1994), an d we also recall what the main theories on inequalities are (Coleman, 1991, Atkinson 1983 or Stiglitz 2012), and about Welfare States (Esping Andersen, 1990). We find that in the History of socio‑economic thought Intellectual Capital and Inequalities have been marching in separate paths: not only the paradigms of analysis are totally different, but only one handful of empirical studies exist that bring together IC and inequalities. The fact is crucial for our paper because we believe that IC in fact increases inequality and explains growing inequality. We also found that Piketty almost does not address IC directly in his entire book, a fact that by itself speaks volumes about the position of IC in the world of socio‑economic thought. Pikettys analys is, for all its importance, and novelty, is traditional and surprisingly old fashioned when it comes to considering Intangibles. He never uses IC, he seems to be unware of IC analysis. However we also think that most of Pikettys analysis would gain stren gth if IC is considered (as we believe it certainly should be) as a major force of inequality in the economy of the 21st century. In the discussion of the paper we point out nine ways in which the inclusion of IC in the analysis could benefit Pikettys conclusions; the seven ideas relate to IC itself, KM and the knowledge economy, super‑professionals, billionaires, Human Capital, social policies and development, taxes on wealth, modern slavery, and the rise of political oligarchies in the 21st Century with relation to technology. The paper is limited because it is basically theoretical. We consider the paper is original because for the first time someone attempts to put together inequality (which is Pikettys point of view) and intellectual capital (which is IC science point of view), as we describe in the theoretical part of the paper. Furthermore we are sure, and demonstrate that both fields should be linked in the future. Finally we believe that our comments on the book which result in the emp irical part of the paper are a first step in what we think must be a long road of scientific research.
Networking Intellectual Capital towards Competitiveness: An Insight into the European Higher Education Institutions pp228‑239
Abstract: Today, the interplay between the network society and the knowledge society have provided an overarching perspective on how global interconnectivity and knowledge transfer cannot be separated anymore. The advancement of technological opportunitie s and the openness towards knowledge acquisition have reconfigured the landscape of human collaboration. As a premise of achieving sustainable competitive advantages, organizations should reconsider the value of the social and information exchange within their networks, facilitating organizational learning and proper response to the field dynamics. Against this backdrop, the present paper addressed the viewpoints and practices of academics from European higher education institutions in regard to leveragin g the intellectual capital within their online social networks. Stressing on subjects from European developing countries, the research advanced a new concept ‑ the network‑based intellectual capital liable to account for an emergent capital reification and relied on an interview‑based survey with 27 professors. As the findings showed, although acknowledged as a paramount competitive advantage, the network‑based intellectual capital is yet to be properly capitalized.
Keywords: Keywords: network-based intellectual capital, higher education institutions, competitiveness
The Mediating Effects of Trustworthiness on Social‑Cognitive Factors and Knowledge Sharing in a Large Professional Service Firm pp240‑253
Abstract: This paper extends the findings of a large empirical study of organizational information and knowledge sharing that examined the interplay of several notable social and cognitive factors, including trust, shared language, shared vision, tie stre ngth, homophily, and relationship length. Initial data analysis examined the direct, relative, and collective effects of these social and cognitive factors on organizational knowledge sharing factors (Evans, 2012). The results of this analysis demonstra ted that co‑worker trust influences, in a statistically significant way, each factor used to operationalize organizational knowledge sharing, namely: willingness to share knowledge, willingness to use knowledge, and perceived receipt of useful information /knowledge (Evans, 2013). This study presents the results of a secondary data analysis, which examines whether perceived trustworthiness in co‑workers acts as a mediating variable between the previously mentioned social‑cognitive variables and knowledge sharing factors. Data were collected from 275 knowledge workers (legal professionals and paralegals) engaged in shared legal project work, at one of Canadas largest multijurisdictional law firms. The nature of their work requires a significant relianc e on co‑workers, across offices nationwide, for both explicit and tacit information and knowledge. The nature of projects allows respondents to objectively evaluate the outcomes, gaining a better sense of the perceived effects of knowledge shared. A metho d put forward by Baron and Kenny (1986), which includes hierarchical multiple regression analysis, was used to test for the mediating effects of perceived co‑worker trustworthiness. The results of the study showed that the relationship between shared l anguage and shared vision on information and knowledge sharing is mediated through perceived trustworthiness. Moreover, this mediation is subject to the nature of the relationship between co‑workers. For shared language, the role of co‑worker relationship is still more nuanced as perceived trustworthiness was found to have a mediating effect between shared language and knowledge sharing in relationships between co‑workers with whom they worked well together on projects only. There is no apparent mediation of trust for shared language in negative co‑worker relationships, which demonstrates one of the few interesting effects found to be dependent on the nature of the co‑worker relationship.
Keywords: Keywords: mediating effects of trust, knowledge sharing in a large professional service firm