A Knowledge Management Framework for Sustainable Rural Development: The case of Gilgit‑Baltistan, Pakistan pp103‑116
Abstract: Some 50% of the people in the world live in rural areas, often under harsh conditions and in poverty. The need for knowledge of how to improve living conditions is well documented. In response to this need, new knowledge of how to improve living conditions in rural areas and elsewhere is continuously being developed by researchers and practitioners around the world. People in rural areas, in particular, would certainly benefit from being able to share relevant knowledge with each other, as well as with stakeholders (e.g. researchers) and other organizations (e.g. NGOs). Central to knowledge management is the idea of knowledge sharing. This study is based on the assumption that knowledge management can support sustainable development in rural and remote regions. It aims to present a framework for knowledge management in sustainable rural development, and an inventory of existing frameworks for that. The study is interpretive, with interviews as the primary source for the inventory of stakehol ders, knowledge categories and Information and Communications Technology (ICT) infrastructure. For the inventory of frameworks, a literature study was carried out. The result is a categorization of the stakeholders who act as producers and beneficiaries of explicit and indigenous development knowledge. Stakeholders are local government, local population, academia, NGOs, civil society and donor agencies. Furthermore, the study presents a categorization of the development knowledge produced by the stakeho lders together with specifications for the existing ICT infrastructure. Rural development categories found are research, funding, agriculture, ICT, gender, institutional development, local infrastructure development, and marketing & enterprise. Finally, a compiled framework is presented, and it is based on ten existing frameworks for rural development that were found in the literature study, and the empirical findings of the Gilgit‑Baltistan case. Our proposed framework is divided in four levels where lev el one consists of the identified stakeholders, le
Keywords: Keywords: sustainability, rural development, remote regions, framework, stakeholder, indigenous knowledge, requirement analysis, knowledge society
Abstract: For about 20 years, organisations have to work with more and more partners through networks, supply chains and other virtual structures, in volatile or just unstable environments. Networked organisational settings underline the need of managing knowledge across boundaries. The literature calls for more theoretical and empirical work to define what IKM is and examine its implementation. This paper responds to that call and investigates how to define and evaluate Interorganizational Knowledge Mana gement (IKM), or the degree to which firms in the supply chain (or other interorganizational settings) demonstrate systematic implementation of IKM. To define IKM, we propose a theoretical framework drawing on the knowledge‑based view, the relational theories and the capacity lens. The theoretical contribution of this work shows that IKM is more than a simple extension of the level of analysis; it is a new concept with unique definition, theoretical frames, and objectives. To evaluate IKM, we study th e concept of IKM orientation. Based on an extensive literature review, this study conceptualizes IKM orientation as six interconnecting elements: frequency of exchanges of information and knowledge; nature of the exchanged information and knowledge; inter ‑organizational activities supported; IT infrastructure; scope, direction and strength of collaborative exchanges; and KM processes supported. Specifically, we provide a case study of a network of franchised convenience stores, to illustrate the several d imensions that comprise the measure of IKM orientation. This study could help managers to identify the IKM orientation in their firms, and the dimensions that need to be improved. Some implications of, perspectives on, and limits of IKM evaluation researc h and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Keywords: Interorganizational Knowledge Management, evaluation, IKM Orientation, Supply-Chain, boundaries
Knowledge Management and Sharing in Local Government: A Social Identity Theory Perspective pp130‑141
Abstract: Service sectors, like local governments, offer various services to assist and develop communities and, as such, society at large. Therefore the interaction between people, knowledge, and technology play a vital role in attaining high service qua lity, economic development, and growth. Knowledge management (KM) techniques and tools can be applied in local government systems to improve service delivery and create service excellence. In addition a social identity theory perspective could give an i ndication of how local government officials categorise themselves in their social environment and as a salient group influence KM management and ‑sharing. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the extent to which social identity theory influ ences knowledge management and sharing in a South African local government institution. Semi‑structured interviews and focus groups were used to obtain data from 22 government officials. The findings highlight some of the issues interlinking KM with self‑ categorisation, group identity, and local government service delivery improvement, giving a framework for adopting KM in local government.
Keywords: Keywords: Knowledge management, social identity theory, knowledge sharing, learning organisation, public service, organisational effectiveness
Unitas: Towards a Holistic Understanding of Knowledge in Organisations A Case Based Analysis pp142‑154
The aim of the paper is to present a holistic framework of knowledge in organizations. The language of duality and opposites dominates much of the knowledge based literature, whereby knowledge and knowing in organizations are framed as an either/ or dis cussion (Schultze and Stabell, 2004). This paper questions the usefulness of continued proliferation of such an approach, given the maturing nature of the field of knowledge management, and the ever increasing implementation of knowledge management acti vities by firms. The paper calls for a more unified interpretation of knowledge in organisations, which reflects the reality of the complex nature of knowledge and knowledge across the multiple levels of the firm. Hence the paper seeks to make a contribu tion by carrying out a multi case study of knowledge and knowing in organisations at multiple levels of analysis (that is at the individual, group and organizational level), with a view to supporting a unified framework on knowledge in organisations. Th e resulting framework is titled, Unitas, a conceptual framework on knowledge in organisations. The research was carried out in four case firms, across two industries, these beingmedical devices and pharmaceuticals. Fifty nine interviews were conducted, in tandem with documentation analysis, and observations. The resulting findings were analyzed using an interpretivist position. The paper concludes that multiple perspectives on organisational knowledge and knowledge activity are evident in the case organis ations at three main levels of analysis, namely the individual, group and organizational levels. The Unitas framework presents four knowledge positions which are all concurrently active in organizations. The main contribution of the Unitas framework on or ganisational knowledge is that it provides a holistic interpretation of knowledge and knowing activity in organizations.
Keywords: Organisational Knowledge, Knowledge Based View: Knowledge Strategy, Knowledge Framework, Case Analysis