The purpose of this paper is to test empirically the potential of Intellectual Capital (IC) as a driver of formation of cross border coalitions in European Union (EU) regions. The question is important given that, at present, economic and social cohe sion is a major factor of stability in the EU. We use a computational model based on different similarity matrices, for the cross‑border cases of Portugal and Spain and for Hungary and Romania, respectively. We find that the results differ with the form of attraction we suppose between the regions, namely driven by diversity or conservative. At least the potential for attraction between such regions, based in IC, may be a useful approach for modeling. We believe that our model should be replicated in ot her EU regions, and thereby increased in depth. However, we regard our results as a promising step towards understanding some important organizing principles for the multi‑regional economics of the 21st century.
Keywords: : metro-regions, cross-border regions, intellectual capital, innovation, complementarities and cooperation, cultural settings
Abstract: Intellectual capital has prevailed as a measure of core competency and competitive advantage which explains the gap between the market value and book value of a company. Given the fact that the nature of intellectual capital is abstract, intangi ble, and difficult to measure, a challenge has arisen for managers to evaluate intellectual capital performance effectively. Despite the fact that several methods have been proposed to assist managers in this area, there is still a scarcity of approaches that are able to combine accurate data from financial reports and subjective judgments by experts, and that are dedicated to measuring intellectual capital in the context of choosing a set of the most promising new products. This forms the motivation to p ropose a method for intellectual capital performance evaluation in the field of product development projects that is based on a fuzzy logic approach. Intellectual capital includes many intangible factors, and as a result, it is difficult to evaluate intel lectual capital performance using only traditional crisp values. Therefore, an evaluation of intellectual capital is proposed according to linguistic variables used by experts. The proposed fuzzy logic approach applies fuzzy linguistic variables to expres s the level of qualitative evaluation of each intellectual capital dimension in the context of project management. The use of the proposed approach can support the decision‑makers in the choice of a set of new products that are most promising, improving t he planning and implementation of intellectual capital management, aiding companies in building their competitive advantages, and helping companies achieve sustainable development. The feasibility
Keywords: Keywords: intellectual capital, measurement, new product development, linguistic variable, fuzzy numbers
Abstract: Education of people is among the basic goals as well as outcomes of modern society. It is conditioned by the current demanding and turbulent environment requiring constant improvement, enhancement, adaptation and development of the level of educ ation. It means that education needs to be permanent, reflecting all current needs resulting from the reality of changes. Education of employees can be characterised as a permanent process in which adaptation and changes of work behaviour, level of knowle dge, skills and motivation of employees of an organisation by means of learning on the grounds of using various methods occurs. It results in reducing the difference between the current competence of employees and requirements posed on them. The objective of the article is to characterise the level of the focus of organisations operating in Slovakia on continuing education and development of employees. This article aims at presenting the results of research conducted in 2012 at the School of Economics and Management in Public Administration in Bratislava and at the Institute of Industrial Engineeering and Management, the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava. The set of respondents comprised 340 randomly selected organisations operating in Slovakia. The key condition posed on them was the size of at least 50 employees. The analysis was used for information collected from literary sources or questionnaires. All the knowledge was dealt with in smaller parts in order to enable a more detailed focus. As to statistical methods, distribution characteristics were used to express the median. Most of the collected values were expressed in % upon the results summarisation. The methods of induction and deduction were used in the article upon deriving the conclusions. The method of comparison was used upon the evaluation of the present state, comparing organisations paying sufficient attention to human resources management and organisations not dealing with it at all. To evaluate the data, the SPSS 19 statistical programme and MS Excel 2007 wer
Keywords: Keywords: education of employees, development of employees, learning organisation, human resources management, organisations operating in Slovakia
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyse if knowledge management maturity models can be applied in corporate practice. So far, empirical studies have mainly examined the influence of knowledge management (KM) on innovation and have identified K M success factors. The underlying assumption is that more KM leads to more innovation and an improved corporate success. Therefore, a thorough KM application is recommended. Little attention has been paid to the question which level of KM application is e ffective and efficient for a company. This paper tries to close this gap using the concept of KM maturity. It investigates if different KM maturity levels can be identified in corporate practice and in how far they are influenced by specific factors, e.g. company size. To answer the research questions, exploratory case studies were conducted through semi‑structured qualitative interviews with representatives from ten northern German companies.The results show that the practical applicability of KM maturit y models (KMMM) is still limited. None of the companies can be categorized to have a high KM maturity level despite their multiple use of KM tools. As influence factors the size of a company and an externally certified quality management were identified . To validate these findings an additional online survey was conducted with 79 participants. The results of this survey support the general statements above, but also show a significant relation with the KMM level and employees participation in knowledge management and the innovation success of a company compared to its main competitor. The paper contributes to the understanding of KM maturity and its influence factors and thus provides the foundation for further empirical research. Moreover, the finding s help organisations to position their KM efforts.
Keywords: Keywords: knowledge management, maturity levels, influence factors, success factors, case study research, online survey
Trust‑Communication Dyad in Inter‑Personal Workplace Relationships Dynamics of Trust Deterioration and Breach pp230‑238
Abstract: Trust has become an important intangible asset in organizations as a foundation for cooperation in workplace relationships. The paper discusses and examines development of trust in relation to communication within work relationships. More specif ically, the dynamics of trust deterioration and trust breach is studied empirically. The paper examines the interplay between communication and trust and how building, violation, breaches and restoration of trust develop in inter‑personal workplace relati onships. The aim of the paper is to provide new knowledge and insights of the dynamics between communication and trust and make practical implications to leadership and HRM for human capital development. By presenting the empirical findings from a qualit ative case study with other complementing data the paper also aims to shed more light on how poor communication, in particular, affects trust development between actors involved. The paper advocates the importance of developing trust and communication for intangible intellectual asset in workplaces and their management. Originality of the paper is based on the idea of exploring the relation between trust and communication, specifically in the situation of trust violation and breach. The paper provides a s till under researched issue of intangible assets, since relational resources such as trust and communication have not been widely examined in the context of trust breach, in specific. In the theoretical discussion, trust and communication are seen interwo ven in interpersonal work relationships. Trust is looked as intangible asset and skill and communication a means and antecedent for trust. The findings show that poor communication plays an important role in deterioration and breaches of trust. Distrust m ay permeate widely within the organization and beyond the original parties involved. If space is left to the low trust climate to develop the consequences may be unfavorable, harmful and even damaging to the organization. Trust violation and breaches seem to be connected with workplace bullying wit
Keywords: Keywords: communication, case study, intangible assets, inter-personal trust, narratives, work relationship, trust breach, qualitative method
Abstract: The success of enterprise is bounded with achievement of the set targets and progress of enterprise in accordance with its mission. Performance of any enterprise is determined by the level of performance of individual employees. Starting from se tting the objectives, from the strategic to the operational, procedures for their achievement, and the criteria for their evaluation, is the issue of performance management which is in consideration of industrial enterprise management in their day to day activities. Access to this issue affects the success of the enterprise on the market and its competitiveness. Objective indicators are supplemented by subjective evaluation of the representatives of the enterprise. Main challenge is to measure performance in the context of corporate culture, respectively to discover relations between corporate culture and the success of the enterprise. On the basis of the partial findings in this area, we have come to the conclusion about importance of relationship of cor porate culture and the success of the enterprise and the suitability to continue its investigations in more details. In this article we present results of our previous researches. Outcomes and conclusions, which we present in the paper, are based not o nly on theoretical knowledge, theories and results of published studies as well as several already completed results published under researches carried out by our institute but also on our researches focused on organizational performance.This contribution is a particular outcome of research project VEGA 1/0787/12 The identification of sustainable performance key parameters in industrial enterprises within multicultural environment and research project VEGA 1/0055/13 "Systematization of the impact of fac tors and conditions of knowledge management in the context of business strategy on work incentives and its reflection in growth efficiency, respectively sustainable level of business.
Keywords: Keywords: corporate culture, effectiveness measurements, indicators, performance management
Making Sense of the Intangibles ‑ A co‑word Analysis of the most Important Perspective of Analysis pp249‑258
Scholars have approached to managing intangible elements from several perspectives throughout the literature. This field of research is still young, with no more than two decades of more intensive empirical research, which has confirmed the relevance of i ntangible‑based elements on achieving a competitive edge in virtually every industry. Taxonomy and classifications of intangible elements have been built from either deductive or inductive methods. And also practitioners are more concerned and convinced t hat intangible elements are a key in the today⠒s competition, more than ever before. However, a categorization of approaches followed by scholars is still missed. The categorization proposed in this article will allow a more in‑depth understanding of ho w intangible elements may help to achieve a competitive advantage, either from a theoretical or an empirical perspective. In addition, it will provide further information on how the different intertwined approaches relate to each other and, hence, it will help scholars and practitioners to gain a further understanding of how to implement intangible‑based strategies more successfully. With these goals in mind, a search on the main databases was conducted (namely, ISI‑Web of Knowledge and Scopus). Up to 4 ,308 different articles dealing somehow with intangible assets were found. In this paper, the title and keywords are analyzed and the content is categorized in six different themes: Knowledge Management refers to IA and its consequences in the Knowledge c ycle; Intellectual Capital refers to IAs as mainly the knowledge‑based economic value, divided into Human Capital, Relational Capital and Structural Capital; Human Resource Development refers to IAs as organizational learning; Economics deals with the mic ro and macroeconomic consequences of IAs and with the market of IAs; by Social Policy we mean IAs investment considered as a commodity which have social benefits and which are managed by social operators; and finally the Management and Accountability, whe re the quite old fashioned view is addressed a
Impact of Intellectual Capital and its Components on Firm Performance Before and After Crisis pp259‑270
Abstract: The recent economic crisis has caused a significant discontinuity in the world of business. Companies and researchers are constantly trying to understand the key drivers that caused significant impact on companies⠒ performance and how to chall enge them in the future. One still insufficiently covered research issue is the role that intellectual capital and its different components have played in the performance of small and medium‑sized enterprises, and how this role has changed after the cris is. Intellectual capital has become a key value creation driver in the new economy. Its positive influence on firm performance has been proved by numerous empirical studies worldwide. Several of them also investigated how the economic crisis affected this paradigm. However, the body of knowledge supported by sound empirical findings in this field is still rather scarce. Therefore, the purpose of our study is to examine the relationship between intellectual capital (IC) and its different components, and firm performance before the recent economic crisis and in the period of recovery, among SMEs in different industries in Slovakia. To measure the level of IC and its respective components we applied the Value added intellectual coefficient (VAIC⌢) indi cator developed by Pulic. This measure, however being criticized by some authors, is the most frequent metric used to evaluate IC and its components using financial data. We selected ROA as our performance measure... Our analysis also accounted for firm s ize and financial leverage while investigating the effect of IC on SME performance. We based our analysis on panel data comprising of 2008 and 2011 financial statements of 1947 Slovak SMEs operating in 10 industries (sections according to SK NACE rev. 2 classifications). These data were obtained from business information portal Universal Register Plus operated by CRIF ‑ Slovak Credit Bureau. To compare the influence of IC on firm performance we constructed pre‑crisis (2008) and post‑crisis (2011) re gression models and analyzed the observed differences
Keywords: Keywords: intellectual capital, intellectual capital components, firm performance, VAICTM, HCE, SCE, CEE, SMEs, economic crisis