The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management aims to publish perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of knowledge management
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Journal Article

Transformational and Transactional Leadership Predictors of the 'Stimulant' Determinants to Creativity in Organisational Work Environments  pp23-34

John D. Politis

© Apr 2005 Volume 2 Issue 2, Editor: Charles Despres, pp1 - 44

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Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between the leadership dimensions associated with Bass's (1985) model, and the 'stimulant' and 'obstacle' determinants of the work environment for creativity. There are three major findings in this research. First, the relationship between transformational and transactional leadership and the 'stimulant' determinants of the work environment for creativity is significant and positive. Second, the 'obstacle' determinants of the work environment for creativity are negatively related with both transactional and transformational leadership. Finally, transformational leadership is more strongly correlated than transactional leadership with the 'stimulant' determinants of the work environment for creativity. Thus, transformational leadership is an increasingly important aspect in today's organisations in creating a corporate culture and the work environment that stimulates employees' creativity and innovation.

 

Keywords: creative work environment, innovation, knowledge management, organisational creativity, transformational and transactional leadership

 

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Journal Article

Actors and Factors: Virtual Communities for Social Innovation  pp89-96

Susan G. Restler, Diana D. Woolis

© Mar 2007 Volume 5 Issue 1, ECKM 2006, Editor: Charles Despres, pp1 - 130

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Abstract

Virtual communities of practice (COPs) are fast becoming a basic work unit in a networked world. The relationship between COPs, Knowledge Management, and the Learning Organisation is a question of priority for social sector leaders, researchers, policy makers, and practitioners as they seek to establish ways to maintain relevance and effectiveness in the volatile environments in which they work (Thomas et al, 2005). When well executed, virtual COPs produce results because the knowledge is stewarded: organised for learning, poised for action, and planned for sustainability. In this paper, we document and analyse the actors and factors that, in our experience, contribute to success: Enlightened Leadership, Compelling Work, Appropriate Technology and Knowledge Sustainability. Over the last two years we have worked with new virtual COPs in both the public and non‑profit sectors. The outsized successes prove the power of this approach to work. The under‑performers help define the parameters for more effective implementations. Perhaps surprisingly, the critical success factors for a high‑performing virtual COP have absolutely nothing to do with technological aptitude. The two key determinants of community success harken back to Business Management 101: the strategic clarity and capacity for collaborative leadership in the organisation, and the specificity and practicality of the community mission.

 

Keywords: Communities of Practice, Innovation, Knowledge Management, Virtual Communities, Non-profit Management, Public Administration

 

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Journal Article

A Consistent Assessment of Intellectual Capital in SMEs InCaS: Intellectual Capital Statement — Made in Europe  pp427-436

Kai Mertins, Markus Will

© Jan 2008 Volume 5 Issue 4, Editor: Charles Despres, pp347 - 550

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Abstract

Globalisation and the accompanying increasing international competition put considerable pressure on European small and medium‑sized enterprises (SME). The key to competitiveness increasingly appears to be the way people combine, master and commercialise their know‑how. Hence it is crucial for European SMEs to utilise and manage knowledge efficiently in order to obtain a competitive advantage. While different national approaches on the management of Intellectual Capital (IC) have been developed and tested, there is no European wide standard regarding the measurement of IC. The collective research project "Intellectual Capital Statement — Made in Europe" aims at harmonising these scattered approaches on a scientific as well as a practical level. Based on scientific consensus a first framework has been developed providing a common ground for the measurement of IC by introducing the Intellectual Capital Statement (ICS). The ICS is an instrument to assess, develop and report an organisation's IC, to monitor critical success factors systematically, and to support strategic management decisions. As InCaS puts emphasis on a practical approach suitable for SMEs, the framework is to be understood as a starting point for phase I of the project, providing the basis for further development of the method towards practicability and harmonisation. It will be expanded to the final "European ICS guideline" and supported by the "ICS toolbox" in subsequent project phases. Main focus of this paper is the InCaS project and the accompanying European approach on measuring IC. As a first result a brief overview on the existing approaches on measuring IC is provided. Furthermore, the InCaS project as well as the ICS method is described and preliminary results are discussed.

 

Keywords: Intellectual capital, intellectual capital statement, knowledge management, innovation, SME, european commissionresearch

 

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Journal Article

The Gatekeepers' Intervention in Innovation and Technological Transfer  pp63-76

Deogratias Harorimana

© Apr 2009 Volume 7 Issue 1, ECKM 2008, Editor: Roy Williams, pp1 - 198

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Abstract

This work discusses how knowledge gatekeepers' intervention in the process of innovations and technology transfer was developed and applied in the manufacturing, financial and R&D firms in Rwanda and Uganda. The study was based on 150 questionnaires distributed, and used to collect empirical data. Furthermore, 25 interviews were conducted within ten organizations and fifteen well known opinion leaders and recognised experts in the fields concerned by this study. In an examination of the role of gatekeeper of knowledge in knowledge transfer processes the study has found that knowledge gatekeepers maybe individual, a firm, or a department within an organization. Furthermore, individuals working as knowledge gatekeepers must adapt to the recipient culture and knowledge sharing practice if they are to effect change. For technological innovations and knowledge transfer, the study found that the role of gatekeepers can be a multidimensional one, ranging from being trust and relationship builders, ambassadors within and from originating firms to receiving firms, and flag bearers. On the basis of the evidences obtained, the study has found no evidence to suggest that, in a gatekeeper's intervention within the knowledge creation process, there are no evidences that, in case of a firm acting as a knowledge gatekeeper, may necessarily develop asymmetries as well as put in place destructive mechanisms to restrain potential competitors within the sector from developing similar products or that they would necessarily incorporate innovative SMEs in their network who may provide related products to the leading firm.

 

Keywords: knowledge gatekeeper, innovation, leading firms, knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, culture, Rwanda, Uganda

 

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Journal Article

Model to Support Patent Retrieval in the Context of Innovation‑Processes by Means of Dialogue and Information Visualisation  pp87-98

Paul Landwich, Tobias Vogel, Claus-Peter Klas, Matthias Hemmje

© Apr 2009 Volume 7 Issue 1, ECKM 2008, Editor: Roy Williams, pp1 - 198

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Abstract

Innovations are an essential factor of competition for manufacturing companies in technical industries. Patent information plays an important role within innovation‑processes and for human innovators working on innovations. Innovation‑processes support the combination of cross‑organisational spread information and resources from patent databases and digital libraries is necessary in order to gain profit for innovation experts. The central challenge is to overcome the current information deficit and to fulfil the information need of the experts in the innovation‑process. Classical information retrieval (IR) research has been dominated by the system‑oriented view in the past. A user formulates a query and then evaluates the elements found through the query according to their relevance. But this rather static setting does not always correspond to the communication and interaction needs of humans. IR systems should explicitly support also the cognitive abilities of the users in order to realize a dynamic dialogue between the user and the system. An information dialogue which does not only support an individual query but also the complete search process is necessary. Only in this way is it possible to satisfy an information need and support the innovation‑process. In this paper we present in detail three innovation scenarios to highlight the challenges of advanced information systems, query reusability and result visualisation. By defining the essential activities and conditions of a search task, it is possible to develop user interfaces which offer assistance in the form of a connection of dialogues. From this we derive the elementary information sets and activities in the next step. An example illustrates the applicability and utility of the innovation scenarios described and shows how the activities satisfy the user's information dialogue context. As part of the example we apply a cognitive walkthrough on a patent database. Aiming for an implementation of Daffodil‑System we will benefit from these results.

 

Keywords: information retrieval, innovation-process, interactive systems, patent retrieval, result visualisation, information visualisation

 

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Journal Article

InCaS: Intellectual Capital Management in European SME — Its Strategic Relevance and the Importance of its Certification  pp111-122

Kai Mertins, Wen-Huan Wang, Markus Will

© Apr 2009 Volume 7 Issue 1, ECKM 2008, Editor: Roy Williams, pp1 - 198

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Abstract

As the Lisbon Agenda declares the aim for the European Union to become the most dynamic and competitive knowledge‑based market in the world by 2010, management instruments are needed to support companies achieving this ambitious goal. Small and medium‑sized companies (SMEs) are especially affected by this plan being the driving force of Europe's economy. To obtain their competitive advantage, it is crucial for SMEs to utilise knowledge efficiently and to enhance their innovation potential. Thus, managing their specific Intellectual Capital (IC) becomes more and more important for future‑oriented organisations. A practical way to tackle the challenge is the methodology developed by the German pilot project 'Wissensbilanz — Made in Germany' and the European pilot project 'InCaS: Intellectual Capital Statement — Made in Europe'. The Intellectual Capital Statement (ICS) is an instrument to assess, develop and report the IC of an organisation and to monitor critical success factors systematically. By applying this method in more than 50 German and 25 European small and medium‑ sized enterprises, it was possible to support the participating companies in identifying, evaluating and developing their strategically relevant knowledge. Resulting from increased interests in managing and reporting of IC, stakeholders such as creditors or investors receive ICS in completely different qualities — from very reliable to implausible. To ensure the quality of ICS in a sustainable way, we have developed an approach of ICS certification based on the methods of quality management system certification, financial audit and the assessment for European Excellence Award. In the end, only the ICS fulfilling the quality requirements will be awarded a certificate. A catalogue with requirements shall serve as the certification basis and has to be in place beforehand. This catalogue evolved as an essence of both above mentioned projects and includes the experiences of ICS implementations. The challenge is to determine the smallest possible amount of requirements that will enable the ICS to meet the acknowledged quality criteria. Furthermore, this paper summarises how the InCaS method supports companies developing a knowledge‑based strategy. We describe research results gained from the German and European project about the strategic relevance of particular IC factors in general and their relevance depending on the business sector.

 

Keywords: intellectual capital statement audit, knowledge management, innovation, SME, quality requirements, certification

 

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Journal Article

Designing a Strategy Formulation Process for New, Technology‑Based Firms: a Knowledge‑based Approach  pp245-254

Antonios Livieratos

© Jun 2009 Volume 7 Issue 2, ICICKM 2008, Editor: Kevin O'Sullivan, pp199 - 296

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Abstract

In the knowledge‑based economy the nature of what is strategic has been modified along with the importance of knowledge and its management. One of the most important implications of these changes is the expansion of resources and products that are globally tradable, highlighting the importance of knowledge as the key economic resource of lasting competitive advantage. As a consequence of this shift in the economy, an increasing number of industries are moving from the closed innovation model to the open innovation model that created porous boundaries between the innovative company and its surrounding environment, changing the interand intra‑organizational modes of coordination. In an environment where knowledge is the key economic resource and the open innovation model is applied in more and more industries, we are experiencing the increasing importance of the New Technology‑Based Firm (NTBF). NTBFs face a number of difficulties mainly associated with a lack of resources and entrepreneurial skills and in order overcome the difficulties NTBFs strive towards flexibility while accelerating the development and commercialization processes by creating andor entering business networks. By adopting a knowledge‑based view for NTBFs and consequently placing knowledge in the centre of a systemic innovation model, knowledge networks constitute an asset for NTBFs. As this new form of cooperation takes multiple and often unpredictable forms it is thus essential to develop strategy formulation tools and processes that can help NTBFs to face their challenges. Until now little attention has been given to the development of strategy tools and processes tailored for the requirements of NTBFs. The present paper presents a concept to cope with NTBFs' by developing a generic process for strategy formulation. In this respect, an action research project was initiated. The proposed concept was initially designed, although not exclusively, for a Greek NTBF, Astrofos Ltd. The author, who is coordinator of the incubator where Astrofos is sited, is acting as a strategy consultant for the firm and has taken part in all its major decisions since summer 2007. In order to build the strategy formulation process, this paper proposes a mapping technique that attempts to depict a NTBF's tangible and intangible transactions as well as the strength of ties between the focal NTBF and its partners and the complexity of the knowledge. In developing the mapping technique, we have used a combination of the concept of weak ties, derived from social network analysis, with the notion of complex knowledge, as this combination was initially proposed by Hansen (1999). Additionally, a set of questions is proposed that have to be answered in order to pass from knowledge identification to knowledge transfer, from a strategic point of view. In this regard, the presented methodology constitutes an effort, on the one hand, to study the emergent patterns in what is considered to be a chaotic or disordered system and, on the other, to stimulate the creation of new patterns in the system that would be consistent with the NTBF's strategy.

 

Keywords: new technology-based firm, NTBF, innovation, strategy formulation process, value network, mapping technique, social network analysis, knowledge complexity

 

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Journal Article

The Role of Knowledge Flow in the Thai GUIN Version of the Triple Helix Model  pp287-296

Lugkana Worasinchai

© Jun 2009 Volume 7 Issue 2, ICICKM 2008, Editor: Kevin O'Sullivan, pp199 - 296

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Abstract

The "triple helix" model is considered as being a spiral model of innovation contributing to the country and regional improvement by fostering interactions between academic, industry and government. This model highlights the ties between the three parties at different stages in the process of knowledge capitalization and flow. Although, this model has proven to be effective in some countries, some questions remain regarding its effective implementation in Thailand. This paper presents an adapted version of the helix model that could contribute to development of ties among stakeholders through strategic alliances. The success key factors leading to an economic development mission by universities are as well discussed.

 

Keywords: triple helix model, knowledge capitalization, Thailand, research network, innovation, university- industry interaction, framework G-U-I-N

 

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