The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management aims to publish perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of knowledge management
Become a Reviewer for EJKM click here
Click here to see other Scholarly Electronic Journals published by API
For a range of research text books on this and complimentary topics visit the Academic Bookshop

Information about the European Conference on Knowledge Management (ECKM) is available here.

For info on the International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning (ICICKM), click here
Information about the European Conference on Intellectual Capital (ECIC) is available here
 

Journal Article

Knowledge Maps and Mathematical Modelling  pp497-504

Tomas Subrt, Helena Brozova

© Jan 2008 Volume 5 Issue 4, Editor: Charles Despres, pp347 - 550

Look inside Download PDF (free)

Abstract

The aim of our paper is to explain a mathematical model as a special case of symbolic knowledge map. Each knowledge mapping is a visualization of knowledge for the purpose of eliciting, sharing and expanding. Tools of such visualization can be of various types. But in reality many types of so‑called knowledge maps are only data flow or information flow diagrams. Our paper will define the most important features which every knowledge map must satisfy, for instance it must include chronological, hierarchical, associative, causal and evaluative relationships, it must improve the quality of knowledge etc. In our paper we will prove that a mathematical model satisfies all requirements to be called a knowledge map. Neither definition nor categorization and taxonomy of knowledge mapping are unified in the literature so the authors try to start with working on this field. Knowledge map is a visual interception of knowledge with the aim of its storage, sharing and development. Weak descriptive knowledge maps may be used for explaining the ideas and concepts connected with OR models, as well as for explaining the new knowledge gained with the models, in a well‑ structured form. Strong descriptive knowledge maps can serve to describe real relations between the objects of the models or real elements in relation to their positioning. In this case the object placing does not describe only its physical position but also, for instance, its economical indexes. Like the normative OR models, the normative knowledge maps show the normative solution, or help to find the best, desirable or advisable solution. After suggestions of how to categorize knowledge maps (above) mathematical models of various types with all features and properties are presented as a knowledge map.

 

Keywords: knowledge map, knowledge map categorization, mathematical model, model construction, algorithm, model solution

 

Share |

Journal Article

Mobile Knowledge Tool‑kit to Create a Paradigm Shift in Higher Education  pp255-260

Nader Nada, Mohamed Kholief, Shehab Tawfik, Noha Metwally

© Jun 2009 Volume 7 Issue 2, ICICKM 2008, Editor: Kevin O'Sullivan, pp199 - 296

Look inside Download PDF (free)

Abstract

One of the main objective of educators is to identifying inspiring and interactive approach to learning, and to encourage students to be more receptive and co‑operative in the classroom. To help educators in achieving these goals we employed constructivist epistemology and constructivist cognitive psychology, together with the use of Mind Maps and Mobile Knowledge (M‑K) Toolkit. The toolkit can serve as the foundation for a new kind of integration of Internet resources and all classroom, laboratory, field experiences, and when used with "expert skeletal" Mind Maps to scaffold learning. It is our thesis that good theory‑based use of the appropriate technology can increase the benefits of using Mind Maps in education and lead to dramatically improved education. In this paper we first explored the Mind Maps Concept, then we presented and explained the advantages of M‑K toolkit and how this can support mind mapping and integration of a whole array of learning experiences. In the last section we presented two case studies to provide the evidence of how the M‑K toolkit and Mind Maps can lead to education paradigm shift and enhance the outcome of the learning experience in higher education.

 

Keywords: mind map, higher education, mobile knowledge, m-k toolkit

 

Share |

Journal Article

Methods and Tools for Knowledge Management in Research Centres  pp293-306

Jean-Louis Ermine

© Nov 2010 Volume 8 Issue 3, Editor: David O'Donnell, pp267 - 344

Look inside Download PDF (free)

Abstract

In the Knowledge Based Economy, research centres whether industrial or public, play a fundamental role. In terms of Knowledge Management, these organisations have a special status, because their production is knowledge and only knowledge. The Knowledge Capital they accumulate in their activities therefore is a strong strategic issue and the management of these assets has become crucial. The problem addressed in this paper is to design a pertinent methodology for Knowledge Management considering the specificity of knowledge production by research centres. This methodology is based on a suitable model to describe that knowledge production. The reference model is built on knowledge flows between the organisation and its knowledge workers, and a subsystem called “Knowledge Capital”. A research centre is defined by the fact that its product is only knowledge and is accumulated in its knowledge subsystem. Some economical characteristics of this Knowledge Capital are shown as being very adapted to knowledge produced in research centres. The methodology is based on two tools. The first tool is the knowledge map that can represent a comprehensive model of the Knowledge Capital of the organisation, which is often not well known or unstructured. That map is built on a shared and consensual vision of the main knowledge actors. It is not a map produced by a knowledge tool, but a co‑construction (through interviews) with the knowledge actors. The second tool is a grid for criticality analysis (Critical Knowledge Factors), which evaluates the knowledge domains of the organisation and suggests appropriate actions to be put in place for the most critical domains. This tool is a guide for interviewing knowledgeable actors in the organisation, to collect and analyse a set of data for decision support. The aim of the methodology is to provide a set of recommendations to build a KM plan of actions to preserve, share and make evolve the Knowledge Capital. The methodology has been elaborated through constant feed‑back with practice, and has been validated in many real cases in various countries. Three case studies (France, Brazil, and Canada) are succinctly described to exemplify the effectiveness of the methodology.

 

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge capital, research centre, knowledge map, critical knowledge factors

 

Share |

Journal Article

Critical Knowledge Map as a Decision Tool for Knowledge Transfer Actions  pp129-140

Jean-Louis Ermine, Imed Boughzala, Thierno Tounkara

© Jun 2010 Volume 4 Issue 2, ICICKM 2005, Editor: Charles Despres, pp91 - 216

Look inside Download PDF (free)

Abstract

Knowledge transfer is no longer reducible to classical solutions such as face‑to‑face training, technical education or tutoring. Knowledge to be transferred is professional knowledge (Business Knowledge). It involves the whole Knowledge Capital within an organization. Identifying the knowledge components that are worthwhile transferring is not an easy task. This is the problem addressed in this paper.

 

Keywords: knowledge transfer, knowledge management, knowledge mapping, and knowledge capitalization

 

Share |

Journal Article

Enhancing the Reusability of Inter‑Organizational Knowledge: an Ontology‑Based Collaborative Knowledge Management Network  pp233-244

Nelson Leung, Sim Kim Lau, Joshua Fan

© Jun 2009 Volume 7 Issue 2, ICICKM 2008, Editor: Kevin O'Sullivan, pp199 - 296

Look inside Download PDF (free)

Abstract

Researchers have developed various knowledge management approaches that only focus on managing organizational knowledge. These approaches are developed in accordance with organizational KM strategies and business requirements without the concern of system interoperation. The lack of interoperability means that heterogeneous Knowledge Management Systems from different organizations are unable to communicate and integrate with one another, this results in limitation to reuse inter‑organizational knowledge. Here, inter‑organizational knowledge is defined as a set of explicit knowledge formalized and created by other organizations. In this research, a collaborative inter‑organizational KM network is proposed to provide a platform for organizations to access and retrieve inter‑organizational knowledge in a similar domain. Furthermore, ontology and its related mediation methods are incorporated in the network. The concept of ontology enables organizations to explicitly represent their knowledge of a specific domain with representational vocabulary in terms of objects and their interrelated describable relationships. Although different organizations may possess their own set of ontologies, the mediation methods that include mapping, merging and integration are capable of reconciling the underlying heterogeneities of ontologies. In this way, it is possible for the participant organizations to reuse inter‑organizational knowledge within the network even though there are fundamental differences among organizations in terms of KMS structures and knowledge formats. The retrieved inter‑organizational knowledge could then be used to support knowledge creating, storing, dissemination, using and evaluation of the organizational KM process. In additional, a selection framework is also proposed to assist organizations in choosing suitable ontology mediation approaches, ranging from mapping approaches, levels of automation, mediation methods to matching techniques. While knowledge engineers could reuse inter‑organizational knowledge to create and evaluate organizational knowledge, general users are benefit from the effectiveness and efficiency in searching for relevant inter‑organizational knowledge within the network.

 

Keywords: knowledge management, ontology, mapping, merging, integration

 

Share |

Journal Article

Designing a Strategy Formulation Process for New, Technology‑Based Firms: a Knowledge‑based Approach  pp245-254

Antonios Livieratos

© Jun 2009 Volume 7 Issue 2, ICICKM 2008, Editor: Kevin O'Sullivan, pp199 - 296

Look inside Download PDF (free)

Abstract

In the knowledge‑based economy the nature of what is strategic has been modified along with the importance of knowledge and its management. One of the most important implications of these changes is the expansion of resources and products that are globally tradable, highlighting the importance of knowledge as the key economic resource of lasting competitive advantage. As a consequence of this shift in the economy, an increasing number of industries are moving from the closed innovation model to the open innovation model that created porous boundaries between the innovative company and its surrounding environment, changing the interand intra‑organizational modes of coordination. In an environment where knowledge is the key economic resource and the open innovation model is applied in more and more industries, we are experiencing the increasing importance of the New Technology‑Based Firm (NTBF). NTBFs face a number of difficulties mainly associated with a lack of resources and entrepreneurial skills and in order overcome the difficulties NTBFs strive towards flexibility while accelerating the development and commercialization processes by creating andor entering business networks. By adopting a knowledge‑based view for NTBFs and consequently placing knowledge in the centre of a systemic innovation model, knowledge networks constitute an asset for NTBFs. As this new form of cooperation takes multiple and often unpredictable forms it is thus essential to develop strategy formulation tools and processes that can help NTBFs to face their challenges. Until now little attention has been given to the development of strategy tools and processes tailored for the requirements of NTBFs. The present paper presents a concept to cope with NTBFs' by developing a generic process for strategy formulation. In this respect, an action research project was initiated. The proposed concept was initially designed, although not exclusively, for a Greek NTBF, Astrofos Ltd. The author, who is coordinator of the incubator where Astrofos is sited, is acting as a strategy consultant for the firm and has taken part in all its major decisions since summer 2007. In order to build the strategy formulation process, this paper proposes a mapping technique that attempts to depict a NTBF's tangible and intangible transactions as well as the strength of ties between the focal NTBF and its partners and the complexity of the knowledge. In developing the mapping technique, we have used a combination of the concept of weak ties, derived from social network analysis, with the notion of complex knowledge, as this combination was initially proposed by Hansen (1999). Additionally, a set of questions is proposed that have to be answered in order to pass from knowledge identification to knowledge transfer, from a strategic point of view. In this regard, the presented methodology constitutes an effort, on the one hand, to study the emergent patterns in what is considered to be a chaotic or disordered system and, on the other, to stimulate the creation of new patterns in the system that would be consistent with the NTBF's strategy.

 

Keywords: new technology-based firm, NTBF, innovation, strategy formulation process, value network, mapping technique, social network analysis, knowledge complexity

 

Share |

Journal Article

Dynamic Knowledge Management Toolkit  pp261-266

Nader Nada, Mohamed Kholief, Mahmoud. Ghanem, W. Bakry

© Jun 2009 Volume 7 Issue 2, ICICKM 2008, Editor: Kevin O'Sullivan, pp199 - 296

Look inside Download PDF (free)

Abstract

An important aspect of knowledge management is the implementation of methods to share the unstructured knowledge of expert practitioners within an organization. The existence of unstructured and dynamic knowledge represents a challenge to experts due to the dynamic and non‑sequential nature of such knowledge. In order to make such knowledge sharable, it is necessary to have both an effective elicitation method and a useful representation toolkit. In this paper we describe a Dynamic Knowledge Toolkit (DKT) that is used in knowledge elicitation and representation based upon Knowledge maps. Knowledge Maps content is different from the more general information in typical reference material and that is organized quite differently than standard textbook knowledge or mainstream hypermedia learning systems. These knowledge models tend to be large and complex with interwoven themes and rich interconnections of the concepts based on the expert's highly articulated mental model of the domain. Knowledge Maps have been used in all facets of education, training and business. With the fundamental goal of fostering learning and knowledge sharing they have been shown to be an effective tool for displaying prior knowledge, summarizing, planning, scaffolding for understanding, consolidating experiences, improving affective conditions for critical thinking, decision making, supporting cooperation and collaboration, and organizing unstructured knowledge content. We describe the use of the toolkit in a case study on the capture and representation of local weather forecasting knowledge. We also show how Knowledge maps can be used to support activities such as the preservation of institutional memory, the "recovery" of expertise that might reside in less accessible forms such as archived documents, for performance support, and for other knowledge‑intensive pursuits such as weather forecasting or crisis management.

 

Keywords: knowledge elicitation, knowledge modeling, knowledge sharing, knowledge maps

 

Share |

Journal Article

Activities and Outputs of a Clinical Faculty: an Intellectual Capital Concept Map  pp647-662

Belinda Wilkinson, Clare Beghtol, Dante Morra

© Jan 2010 Volume 7 Issue 5, Editor: Kimiz Dalkir, pp535 - 662

Look inside Download PDF (free)

Abstract

The concept of intellectual capital (IC) was used to evaluate the activities and outputs of a university medical department. First, a conceptual framework was developed to highlight the importance of various activities as dimensions of IC. The conceptualization of IC was further developed using concept mapping (CM). The authors first considered the problem of what comprises IC and determined whether previous researchers have defined IC in terms of activities. The importance of IC, its definition as an organizational resource and activity, the link between IC and value creation and extraction activities, and the problem of the associated composition of IC taken from existing European guidelines and regulations were discussed. To begin to construct a classification of activities and outputs, the information currently employed for assessing the research, education, and related academic activities and outputs of faculty members were analyzed. Four different evaluation approaches were compared to identify the activities and outputs of a university medical department, and to consolidate the information being collected for evaluation of universities, university‑affiliated research institutes, researchers within universities, and faculty within university departments into an inclusive set of activities and outputs. These were two forms of IC reporting, one used in Austrian universities and the other at a university‑affiliated Swedish research institute together with two other long‑established means of assessing faculty, the Research Assessment Exercise in the UK, and the faculty evaluation and promotion requirements at the University of Toronto in Canada. Education administrators' perceptions were solicited to derive the IC used in a research faculty of a Canadian university. The results indicate that IC can be understood in terms of both activities and outputs. Clinical faculty can be expected to engage in research and its supervision, education, obtaining qualifications, clinical and professional practice, and service. Within these categories, individual activities and outputs were not considered to be of equal importance or impact. Among seventy activities and outputs, articles in internationally refereed journals was ranked as most important, whereas teaching awards was ranked as having the most impact by the most participants. This study extends existing research by using CM to generate a conceptual framework of IC for a department of medicine.

 

Keywords: intellectual capital, guidelines, concept mapping, university medical department, clinical faculty, education administrators

 

Share |