The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management aims to publish perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of knowledge management
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Journal Article

How to Ensure the Quality and Reliability of Intellectual Capital Statements?  pp437-448

Kai Mertins, Wen-Huan Wang, Markus Will

© Jan 2008 Volume 5 Issue 4, Editor: Charles Despres, pp347 - 550

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Abstract

To gain competitive advantage in Europe, it is vital for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to utilise knowledge efficiently and to tap into full innovation potential. Reporting those intangible assets systematically to customers, partners, investors or creditors has become a critical success factor. Thus, managing "intellectual capital" (IC) becomes increasingly important for future‑oriented organisations. Conventional balance sheets and controlling instruments are not sufficient any more, because intangible assets are not considered. The collective research project "Intellectual Capital Statement — Made in Europe" considers national experiences and the current state‑of‑the‑art on measuring IC and will establish a European ICS guideline for implementing Intellectual Capital Statements (ICS). The ICS is an instrument to assess, develop and report an organisation's IC, to monitor critical success factors systematically, and to support strategic management decisions (cf. Mertins, Will 2007).For customers, investors and especially creditors, after receiving an ICS, one of the first things that usually comes into their mind is: Is this information "reliable"? To ensure a high quality level of ICS and to be accepted by, for instance, the financial market, it is important to have a neutral third party who certifies the reliability of the document. Learning from the experiences of ISO 9001 certification, assessment for the European Excellence Award and of financial audits, an ICS audit methodology has been developed. The ICS audit verifies the conformity with the European guideline respective ICS implementation process and the completeness of the ICS content. Furthermore, it will check whether the content is plausible, verifiable and representative for the company. To ensure sustainability, the auditor will get a picture of whether the ICS content is communicated and the stated actions for improvements are in progress or already realised. The main focus of this paper is to demonstrate how to ensure the quality and reliability of IC reporting and how to promote the sustainable realisation of actions by ICS audits.

 

Keywords: Intellectual capital, intellectual capital statement, quality management, audit methodology, knowledge management, SME European commissionresearch

 

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Journal Article

InCaS: Intellectual Capital Management in European SME — Its Strategic Relevance and the Importance of its Certification  pp111-122

Kai Mertins, Wen-Huan Wang, Markus Will

© Apr 2009 Volume 7 Issue 1, ECKM 2008, Editor: Roy Williams, pp1 - 198

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Abstract

As the Lisbon Agenda declares the aim for the European Union to become the most dynamic and competitive knowledge‑based market in the world by 2010, management instruments are needed to support companies achieving this ambitious goal. Small and medium‑sized companies (SMEs) are especially affected by this plan being the driving force of Europe's economy. To obtain their competitive advantage, it is crucial for SMEs to utilise knowledge efficiently and to enhance their innovation potential. Thus, managing their specific Intellectual Capital (IC) becomes more and more important for future‑oriented organisations. A practical way to tackle the challenge is the methodology developed by the German pilot project 'Wissensbilanz — Made in Germany' and the European pilot project 'InCaS: Intellectual Capital Statement — Made in Europe'. The Intellectual Capital Statement (ICS) is an instrument to assess, develop and report the IC of an organisation and to monitor critical success factors systematically. By applying this method in more than 50 German and 25 European small and medium‑ sized enterprises, it was possible to support the participating companies in identifying, evaluating and developing their strategically relevant knowledge. Resulting from increased interests in managing and reporting of IC, stakeholders such as creditors or investors receive ICS in completely different qualities — from very reliable to implausible. To ensure the quality of ICS in a sustainable way, we have developed an approach of ICS certification based on the methods of quality management system certification, financial audit and the assessment for European Excellence Award. In the end, only the ICS fulfilling the quality requirements will be awarded a certificate. A catalogue with requirements shall serve as the certification basis and has to be in place beforehand. This catalogue evolved as an essence of both above mentioned projects and includes the experiences of ICS implementations. The challenge is to determine the smallest possible amount of requirements that will enable the ICS to meet the acknowledged quality criteria. Furthermore, this paper summarises how the InCaS method supports companies developing a knowledge‑based strategy. We describe research results gained from the German and European project about the strategic relevance of particular IC factors in general and their relevance depending on the business sector.

 

Keywords: intellectual capital statement audit, knowledge management, innovation, SME, quality requirements, certification

 

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Journal Article

Value, Kaizen and Knowledge Management: Developing a Knowledge Management Strategy for Southampton Solent University  pp135-144

S J Rees, H Protheroe

© Apr 2009 Volume 7 Issue 1, ECKM 2008, Editor: Roy Williams, pp1 - 198

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Abstract

The process of development of the strategic plan for Southampton Solent University offered a vehicle for the development of kaizen and knowledge management (KM) activities within the institution. The essential overlap between the methods offers clear benefits in the HE environment. In consideration of the aspects of KM and kaizen, various potential opportunities were identified as targets for improvement, and clarified by knowledge audit as to value and viability. The derived outcomes are listed along with some of the principal factors and perceived barriers in the practical implementation of the outcomes. Knowledge audit applied here focused on the identification of where value arises within the business. Resource constraints and the practicalities of a people‑centred system limit the permissible rate of innovation, so precise focus on the areas of business activity of most significance to the mission and client base is crucial. The fundamental question of whether such a strategy should be developed as a separate strand or embedded into existing strategies is discussed. In practice, Solent has chosen to embed, principally for reasons of maintenance of ownership and commitment. Confidence in the process has been built through prior success with trialled activities around retention, where an activity‑ based pedagogic framework was adopted to address issues with an access course. Other areas of early intervention include the development and reengineering of recruitment and admissions processes, and the development of activities and pedagogy based on the virtual learning environment as exemplars of the importance of cyclical feedback in continuous improvement. The inherent complexity of processes running across the university as an organisation offers opportunities for benefits from the through‑process approach implicit in kaizen. The business value of the institution is in the skills of its employees and its deployed intellectual property, and thus the importance of the enhancement of both tangible assets and intangible processes is critical to future success.

 

Keywords: knowledge management, kaizen, knowledge audit, knowledge strategy, knowledge management in higher education, strategy development

 

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Journal Article

How to Conduct the Audit of Intellectual Capital in Polish Tourism Business?  pp459-468

El bieta Maria Kot

© Aug 2009 Volume 7 Issue 4, ECIC 2009, Editor: Christiaan Stam, Daan Andriessen, pp397 - 534

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Abstract

Intellectual capital (IC) — defined by the values such as knowledge, skills, experience, organisational, social and cultural relations etc. — is one of the most important assets of tourism business and can be perceived as the factor having the greatest influence on the company's value. Due to the leading role of intangible assets in tourism sector, it is important to specify the IC structure and diagnose IC assets for tourism industry. The results of the diagnosis should be taken into consideration in IC management and in the decision‑making process within the organisation. The diagnosis of the IC condition is an issue which has not been the subject of any detailed research in Polish environment. The lack of specific tools as well as the real need for resolving the title problem has been the inspiration for a deeper investigation. The goal of the undertaken research was to prepare the methods of IC audit in tourism companies and to create necessary, utilitarian auditing tools. The main objective was to be achieved by performing the research tasks presented in the paper, among which the most important are: Review of the theory and different IC valuating and measuring methods (literature of the subject). Executing the initial research among experts, executives and employees of tourism market, using Individual in‑Depth Interview (IDI) and participant observation methods. Preparation of an IC audit's algorithms. Programming a software of IC audit implementation. Application of the IC audit prototype to an experimental group with the aim of eliminating any methodological and technical faults. Implementation of the IC audit in chosen Polish tourism companies. Presentation of the results (reporting). The initial research clearly indicated, that the knowledge resulting from an IC audit is useful and necessary for executives. Reporting of IC audit lets managers identify and highlight the missing or neglected elements of IC structure and recommends certain activities in management procedures, designed to enhance business performance. This paper presents the results of the research done so far, but the main goal is to implement the IC audit tool in Polish tourism companies and prove its efficiency.

 

Keywords: intellectual capital, intangible assets, IC audit, management, tourism, Poland

 

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Journal Article

Results of Knowledge Audit in a Scientific Collaboratory: Possible Applications of Selected KM Aspects in Scientific Collaboratories  pp49-61

Marcela Katuscakova, Martin Katuscak

© Jan 2013 Volume 11 Issue 1, ECKM 2012, Editor: Dr Juan Gabriel Cegarra and Dr María Eugenia Sánchez, pp1 - 115

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Abstract

The paper discusses possible applications of selected aspects of knowledge management in the field of collaboration in science and research, which is characterised by a high degree of knowledge specialisation. Specialised knowledge becomes productive only

 

Keywords: scientific collaboration, collaboratory, knowledge audit, knowledge management, scientific collaboration recommendation

 

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Journal Article

A Theoretical Model for the Report of Intellectual Capital  pp339-360

Florinda Matos

© Nov 2013 Volume 11 Issue 4, ECIC 2013, Editor: Lidia Garcia Zambrano, pp280 - 386

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Abstract

Abstract: Intellectual capital has become a key element of the knowledge economy. Their management is a factor that influences the competitive advantage of companies. The main objective of this paper is to present a methodology (ICM ‑ Intellectual Capita l Model) that allows the audit of intellectual capital management in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). From the conducted research, it can be concluded that the model is technically robust and determines that the management of intellectual capital i s likely to be audited and certified in order to control the quality and dynamism of the knowledge generated and allowing the partner organizations (customers, suppliers and enders) to estimate the innovation capacity and verify the conformity of their management parameters, compared with a reference standard. Indeed, the results of surveys also show that the proposed model forms the basis of a credible accreditation system for intellectual capital management in the majority of Portuguese SMEs. This pap er also contributes to enhance the discussion around the value of organizations intangible assets and therefore to change the current concepts of economic development.

 

Keywords: Keywords: intellectual capital management, audit, ICM

 

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Journal Article

Marketing audit for Knowledge Intensive Business Services  pp1-12

Ettore Bolisani, Enrico Scarso

© Jan 2014 Volume 12 Issue 1, Special Edition for ECKM 2013, Editor: Monika Petraite, pp1 - 85

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Abstract

Abstract: Marketing is a special challenge for KIBS. KIBS deliver knowledge embedded in services, consulting activities, and problem solving capability. Consequently, marketing must communicate the providers ability to manage knowledge exchanges with cus tomers. The implementation of an appropriate marketing strategy also implies a proper approach to auditing marketing activities, but marketing audit procedures and tools are generally targeted to manufacturing or retailing companies. This paper proposes a novel approach to marketing audit for KIBS companies that focuses on their relational and cognitive capabilities. It consists of a questionnaire‑based tool subdivided in sections, each of which considers a particular stage of the customer‑provider relati onship. The basic assumption is that the effective delivery of knowledge‑intensive services requires intense and continuous exchanges of knowledge between customer and provider, and this capability must fit the specific business environment in terms of ma rkets, competitors, etc. The marketing capability of a company is measured in terms of its ability to fruitfully interact with customers in the conditions of the particular operating environment. The questionnaire can help executives of KIBS companies to self assess the marketing positioningŽ of their firms. Due to its easiness of use, it is particularly suitable for small companies. The paper describes the theoretical foundations on which the audit tool is based, a particular implementation for the ICT services sector, and the results of a test conducted with ICT companies.

 

Keywords: Keywords: knowledge marketing, marketing audit, knowledge-intensive business services, ICT companies, knowledge exchanges, practical tool

 

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Journal Article

The Potential of Neuro‑Linguistic Programming in Human Capital Development  pp131-141

Eric Kong

© Mar 2012 Volume 10 Issue 2, ICICKM 2011, Editor: Vincent Ribière, pp110 - 207

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Abstract

Human capital (HC) represents the cumulative tacit knowledge that is embedded in the minds of people in organisations. HC is important to organisations because it serves as a source of innovation and strategic renewal. Individuals carry HC when they join an organisation and take their talent, skills and tacit knowledge with them when they leave the organisation. Thus HC is volatile in nature. Organisations are therefore keen to do what they can to foster and develop HC as a means of achieving sustainable competitive advantage. This paper argues that neuro‑linguistic programming (NLP) has the potential of developing and enhancing the stock of HC in organisations. NLP emerged in the 1970s from the University of California, USA. NLP suggests that subjective experience is encoded in terms of three main representation systems: visual, auditory, and kinaesthetic (VAK). NLP practitioners claim that people tend to have one preferred representation system over another in a given context. Despite that previous research has shown that NLP can assist in facilitating knowledge and learning capabilities, very limited research is conducted using NLP in nurturing HC in organisations. This paper critically reviews the literature and theoretically argues that NLP can be used as a practical approach to develop HC in organisations. This is because NLP primarily focuses on individual internal learning and that learning likely leads to the accumulation of HC in organisations. In other words, organisational members may find it more effective to enhance their tacit knowledge, both individually and collectively, if they adopt the NLP approach in their day‑to‑day work. Examples on how NLP may be used to develop HC in organisations will be provided. Future research direction and limitations will also be discussed.

 

Keywords: human capital, individual and organisational learning, neuro-linguistic programming, visual, auditory and kinaesthetic systems

 

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