In the last few years several theoretical models of organizational learning have been developed from the perspective of diverse disciplines. One of the most influential models is that of Crossan, Lane and White (1999), who believe that organizational learning occurs through four processes (intuiting, interpreting, integrating and institutionalizing) and in two ways: from the individual to the organization (feed forward) and from the organization to the individual (feedback). This model, however, attributes to intuiting (defined by the authors as "the preconscious recognition of the pattern andor possibilities inherent in a personal stream of experience" p. 525) the whole explanation for individual learning, ignoring the influence of conscious learning processes. Zietsma, Winn, Branzei and Vertinsky (2002) introduce two modifications to the model: the process of attending and the process of experimenting. The value of their proposal lies in the recognition of the influence of a conscious process in learning, namely attention. Attending, however, is just one of the many processes that intervene in individual learning. Castaneda and Perez (2005) make a contribution to the original model of Crossan, Lane and White (1999) by redefining individual learning from the perspective of capabilities and learning sub‑processes beyond mere intuition that excludes other cognitive processes and forms of conscious learning. Humans have the capacity for symbolization, forethought, learning through modeling, self‑regulation and self‑reflection. Individual conscious learning includes the process of attention; yet, at the same time (according to Bandura, 1986), it includes three other processes: retention, production and motivation. This paper presents an improvement proposal at the group level of the model, adding two conscious processes: conversation and social modeling. Finally, a case is described with examples of each of the new introduced processes, at the individual and group levels.
Integrating Individual and Organisational Learning Initiatives: Working Across Knowledge Management and Human Resource Management Functional Boundaries pp527-538
Knowledge management initiatives enable an organisation to learn from its successes and mistakes. The nature of knowledge and learning processes means that in seeking to improve the way the organisation learns, knowledge management also has to pay attention to the learning of individuals. In most organisations, other functional specialists also have responsibility for individual learning. This exploratory qualitative research has examined the ways that planned learning initiatives generated by knowledge management and human resources management functions can be integrated more effectively. A survey of the planned individual and organisational learning activities and processes in ten large organisations was undertaken. Eleven examples of initiatives that integrate individual and organisational learning were also identified from within these organisations. These were evaluated and the issues associated with implementation explored through an expert panel and interview process with knowledge managers and human resource managers. Factors that positively influence integration were found to include widespread recognition of the business value of both individual and organisational learning, high level sponsorship that acts as a bridge across functional boundaries and line managers adopting an integrating approach to learning in managing their people and the tasks they undertake. Factors that negatively impact the adoption of an integrated approach were found to include the lack of mechanisms to coordinate across functions and a culture in which functional managers feel unable to change practices. This research has generated a model that appears to be useful in organising the analysis of the planned learning initiatives that are being undertaken by different functions. Together with the examples of integration and its enablers and barriers, knowledge managers and human resource managers can use this to proactively move forward with a more "joined up" approach to learning.
Keywords: knowledge management, human resources management, individual learning, organisational learning