In the new era of the knowledge economy, knowledge‑based work has replaced regular, sequential work with its characteristics of flexibility, complexity, and high uncertainty (Shieh‑Chieh that knowledge is one of the most competitive resources for the dynamic global business environment (Sharif 2005). Within this context, an organisation's ability to effectively implement knowledge‑based activities becomes increasingly vital for the development and sustenance of competitive advantage (De Carolis, 2003; Grant, 1996). Fundamentally, knowledge‑based activities include the creation and integration of knowledge, the accumulation and utilisation of knowledge, and the learning and sharing of knowledge and together, these comprise knowledge management (Shieh‑Chieh management (Szulanski, 1996; Gupta and Govindarajan, 2000). Egan (2003) argued that the effective flow of knowledge is only sustainable through people. Geraint (1998) contended that too much faith has been invested in technology at the expense of people issues. Despite the fact that factors affecting the behaviour of knowledge sharing have been quite heavily investigated (Wasko and Faraj, 2000; Ardichvili al. dimensions have been conducted (Fu and Lee, 2005). This paper looks at how organisations can become more sophisticated at supporting knowledge sharing, by identifying antecedents of knowledge sharing. The basic premise of this paper is that effective knowledge sharing has three interrelated links. The first link relates to knowledge values held by organisational members, i.e. learning orientation which describes three organisational values routinely associated with the predisposition of the firm to learn: commitment to learning, open‑mindedness, and shared vision. The second link relates to market orientation which typically focuses on three components: customer focus, competitor focus and inter‑functional coordination. The final link relates to the organisations' absorptive capacity which is defined as 'the ability to recognise the value of new external information, assimilate it, and apply it to commercial ends'. The paper also argues that the successful sharing of knowledge requires enablers in the form of information technology infrastructure, a reward system that reinforces and encourages knowledge sharing activities and a positive social interaction that creates trust among organisational members. The paper represents work in progress. The final version of the proposed model will be tested in technology parks in Australia and Malaysia.
Innovation, Organizational Learning Orientation and Reverse Knowledge Transfer in Multinationals Companies pp46-54
Abstract: Today, innovation is considered one of the main source of competitive advantage for the companies. For multinationals companies (MCNs) innovation is particularly important because they have more challenges to face than domestic organizations. MNCs have also a potential advantage for developing innovations, as they have access to new ideas and knowledge generating in the different locations they operate in. But this potential advantage can only become real if MNCs are able to transfer the knowl edge they acquire in one of their locations to the others. This paper analyses the relationship between knowledge transfer and innovation in MNCs. In particular, this research focuses on knowledge transfer from the subsidiaries to the headquarters (rever se knowledge transfer). In addition, this paper studies the effect of the firm´s learning orientation as a mediator in the relation between reverse knowledge transfer and innovation. These relationships are tested using a sample of 104 Spanish MNCs. Our findings show that reverse knowledge influences indirectly on the headquarters innovation through its effect on the firms learning orientation. These findings have implications for both academics and practitioners.
Keywords: Keywords: Innovation, Knowledge Management, Reverse knowledge transfer, Learning orientation, Multinationals Companies, MNCs