The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management publishes original articles on topics relevant to studying, implementing, measuring and managing knowledge management and intellectual capital.

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Information about the European Conference on Intangibles and Intellectual Capital (ECIIC) is available here
 

Journal Article

IMPaKT: A Framework for Linking Knowledge Management to Business Performance  pp1-12

Patricia Carrillo

© Nov 1999 Volume 1 Issue 1, Editor: Fergal McGrath, pp1 - 68

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Abstract

A number of organisations have recognised the importance of managing their organisation knowledge in a more structured manner. However, the question arises as to how to evaluate the benefits of a Knowledge Management (KM) strategy and its associated initiatives on the performance of the organisation. This paper presents a framework for the assessment of the likely impact of KM and discusses findings from an evaluation workshop held to critique the framework.

 

Keywords: Knowledge management, business performance, evaluation

 

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Journal Article

Lighting up 'Blind Spots' while Measuring Knowledge Capital  pp31-38

Andrea Fried, Fabricio Orellana

© Dec 2005 Volume 4 Issue 1, Editor: Charles Despres, pp1 - 90

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Abstract

Practical experiences in developing and introducing performance measurements systems for measuring and managing knowledge capital have shown that these instruments do not sufficiently fulfil the expectations of their users. Some authors even point out that the fundamental understanding of methodological and conceptual issues is inade‑quate. Therefore, we suggest that instead of creating further new instruments, an explanation of how and when Perform‑ance Measurement Systems (PMS) become effective is necessary. We argue that highlighting their potential production of "blind spots" and comprehending the use of PMS more reflexively will bring more sustainable effects. As a result, the concept of First and Second Order Reflection of PMS is introduced.

 

Keywords: Knowledge capital, performance measurement systems, organisational practices, first and second order reflection

 

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Journal Article

Intellectual Capital and Organizational Performance: an Empirical Study of the Pharmaceutical Industry  pp357-362

Alka Bramhandkar, Scott Erickson, Ian Applebee

© Jan 2008 Volume 5 Issue 4, Editor: Charles Despres, pp347 - 550

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Abstract

This paper directly measures the impact of intellectual capital management on organizational performance. Although this is an area widely studied in the literature, the nature of most of the work to date is to focus on specific aspects of intellectual capital (human, structural, or relational capital) and their individual impact on performance. This study specifically looks to identify firms that manage overall IC, whatever its nature, better than competitors. We then ask the question, do these firms actually see market results better than those of competitors? In order to do this type of analysis, we felt a need to focus on a specific industry. If wide differences do exist between industries in terms of physical capital needs and human, structural, or relational capital needs, then random firms are harder to compare. Those within a single industry, such as the pharmaceutical firms studied here, should have relatively similar structures in relation to all these needs. We collected data on 139 firms in the drugs industry. We sorted and divided the sample according to market capitalization and book value (a common measure of intellectual capital) then looked at return on assets, investment, and equity, as well as beta. By one measure, firms with the highest level of intangible assets clearly performed better than those with lower levels. The high level firms had significantly better returns and significantly less variability in stock price. According to a second measure, the results were less convincing but still lent support to further research using this methodology. So, as a first cut, this study had very promising results. We intend to repeat it for other industries, experimenting with the measures and means of cutting the data. Although industry‑specific is obviously the initial way to go, we also intend to perform some cross‑industry comparisons with the measures we develop. We believe the results of the full research program will be significant to practice and will provide substantial support to those championing better management of intangible assets within firms.

 

Keywords: intellectual capital, knowledge management, organizational performance, marketbook ratio, ROA, ROE, ROI, beta

 

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Journal Article

Assessing the Drivers of Virtual Knowledge Management Impact in European Firms' Performance: an Exploratory Analysis  pp277-286

Flavio Tiago, Maria Teresa Borges Tiago, João Pedro Couto

© Jun 2009 Volume 7 Issue 2, ICICKM 2008, Editor: Kevin O'Sullivan, pp199 - 296

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Abstract

e‑Business is a phenomenon that has progressed over the past decades at record speed, with considerable promise and hype. It has been embraced with varying degrees of enthusiasm and impact by both large and SME firms. Parallel with its development, E‑Business has attracted research interests, seen in a plethora of new modules, programmes, models and tools. Knowledge Management (KM) is one tool that has seemed to gain a more relevant role, especially as managing knowledge becomes increasingly important to all companies. Appropriate KM practices within organisations can be seen as one of the prerequisites of enhancement of continuous performance improvement in the interne‑based context. Thus, our aim is to develop a conceptual framework related to KM practices in a virtual context and to identify the nature of the relationship existing in those knowledge‑driven elements and performance achievements. This paper aims to bridge the gap between the KM and e‑business performance‑related literatures from the viewpoint of European firms by establishing a model tested in European companies. For this purpose, we used a structural equation modelling analysis. The results show that KM has a positive impact on the maximization of e‑business performance and that some elements individually have a positive influence on e‑business performance. As limitations of the study, we consider the need for more research into this field and the inclusion of news elements such as technological readiness and management support to KM initiatives. The present study advances knowledge on the nature of the relative importance of different components of Internet‑based KM as drivers of e‑business performance and reinforce its importance as an integrated e‑business tool.

 

Keywords: virtual knowledge management, e-business performance, European firms, information and communication technology

 

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Journal Article

Identifying a Suitable Approach for Measuring and Managing Public Service Productivity  pp447-458

Aki Jääskeläinen

© Aug 2009 Volume 7 Issue 4, ECIC 2009, Editor: Christiaan Stam, Daan Andriessen, pp397 - 534

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Abstract

Every public organisation faces the challenge of improving productivity. In this effort, productivity measures are essential managerial tools. However, the task of measuring service productivity has proven to be challenging. A key reason for the challenges seems to be related to the intangibility of services. The objective of this paper is to identify and apply a productivity measurement method satisfying the information requirements of public managers. The study is carried out using a qualitative case study approach. The paper consists of two parts: first, the current knowledge of the issue is examined by reviewing the literature on (service) productivity and performance measurement; second, an action research is carried out in the context of four case services of the City of Helsinki, Finland. A disaggregated approach to productivity measurement is applied. Three different measurement frameworks and methods are evaluated in light of practical criteria for measurement. Finally, a matrix method is chosen and applied in practice. As a result the paper provides more understanding of the process of applying the disaggregated productivity measurement approach in the context of public welfare services.

 

Keywords: intangibles, performance measurement, productivity management, public services

 

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Journal Article

Evaluating Knowledge Management Performance  pp583-592

Clemente Minonneand Geoff Turner

© Apr 2010 Volume 7 Issue 5, Editor: Kimiz Dalkir, pp535 - 662

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Abstract

As organisations become increasingly aware that knowledge is among their most valuable strategic assets, they will be forced to re‑evaluate the way in which they engage with the source of that knowledge to underpin their sustainable development. This will create a fundamental change to established practice; a change that results in a paradigm shift from the traditional operational approach to a more strategic involvement in knowledge management. This change is promoted by the knowledge management maturity model (KM3). KM3 is founded on the idea that successful knowledge management comprises four forms of integration, namely cultural, organisational, procedural and methodical. Despite an emphasis on one of these forms by many organisations, it is understood that all forms of KM integration should be considered in parallel to implement knowledge management practices in an integrative manner. Key indicators that measure the performance of knowledge management integration are needed. They need to measure both effectiveness and efficiency. In many cases, organisations having, and actively executing, a knowledge management strategy tend to focus on the efficiency dimension because it can be evaluated more easily than the effectiveness dimension. Yet this path is fraught with danger because, as with many other aspects of business, the management of knowledge has to be effective before it may provide efficiency gains. Nevertheless, organisations require appropriate forms of measurement. Those that are unwilling, or unable, to develop effective measuring and reporting systems are likely to suffer from product or service quality decreases, lower productivity growth and a reduced ability to compete because they will be less successful in acquiring and using relevant knowledge resources. Key performance indicators that are developed to assess the progress of organisations in this compelling activity need to be aligned with one or another of the four forms of integration and may be either qualitative or quantitative in nature. The balanced scorecard concept is used to measure performance of the KM3 where the balance between the four forms of integration is the prime consideration. Each of these is represented by one segment of the knowledge management monitor (KM2) to facilitate a better understanding of the cause‑and‑effect relationships. It does so by providing structured information about an organisation's knowledge resources: how they are nurtured and how they contribute to organisational sustainability. At the same time, use of KM2 is related to organisational economy. Good economy means good resource management, which for many organisations translates to how they manage individual and accumulated organisational knowledge. This has become so important that they are looking for a more integrated way of managing the three interdependent and complementary pillars of knowledge management, which are organisational learning management, organisational knowledge management and intellectual capital management. Although these three concepts lack a unifying vision, they all relate to each other by informing one another and provide the pathway for a knowledge‑based orientation of strategic management.

 

Keywords: strategic knowledge management, performance measurement, integrative approach

 

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Journal Article

Measuring the Effects of Knowledge Management Practices  pp161-170

Geoff Turner, Clemente Minonne

© Apr 2010 Volume 8 Issue 1, Editor: Ettore Bolisani, Enrico Scarso, pp1 - 180

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Abstract

Successful managers focus their attention on factors that are critical in establishing and maintaining an organisation's competitive edge. The knowledge and skill of employees is one of those factors and it requires proactive management attention. Conceptually, this is achieved through Knowledge Management, a term that has existed in the mainstream of business lexicon for quite some time. Despite this, there is the conspicuous absence of a common understanding of the term that frustrates many managers. Studies have clearly established that there are three interdependent and complementary pillars that support the concept of Knowledge Management. These are Organisational Learning Management (OLM), Organisational Knowledge Management (OKM) and Intellectual Capital Management (ICM). OLM, which has so far dominated both academic and practitioner debate, concerns itself with the problem of capturing, organising and retrieving explicit knowledge, or information, and has led to the simplistic misconception that Knowledge Management only involves the capture, or downloading, of the content of employees' minds. ICM is dominated by those particularly interested in defining key performance indicators that will measure the impact and the benefits of applying knowledge management practices. If management requires measurement this is an essential task but it can only be undertaken once an organisation has clearly established the strategy‑structure‑process parameters to ensure it accesses, creates and embeds the knowledge that it needs...the OKM pillar of knowledge management. This paper looks more deeply at this pillar and in particular the lack of a general integrative approach to enhancing organisational performance in this key strategic area. It considers to what extent such an approach may help an organisation more effectively manage its most relevant source of competitive advantage. With a greater awareness of the various factors allied to the managing and leveraging of human oriented and system oriented knowledge assets, some proposals are put forward to assist in developing or redefining an organisation's intellectual capital reporting models in search of a planning, control and performance measurement system that accounts for the management of an organisation's intellectual assets.

 

Keywords: organisational learning management, organisational knowledge management, intellectual capital management, performance indicators, competitive advantage

 

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Journal Article

The Knowledge‑Based Foundations of Organisational Performance Improvements: An Action Research Approach  pp333-344

Giovanni Schiuma, Daniela Carlucci

© Nov 2010 Volume 8 Issue 3, Editor: David O'Donnell, pp267 - 344

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Abstract

The strategic and management literature grounded on the resource and knowledge based view of the firm, has widely outlined the importance of knowledge assets in a company’s value creation. However, despite acknowledgment of the strategic relevance of knowledge assets and their management for driving organizational performance improvement, there is still a lack of suitable approaches to disentangle, explain and assess how knowledge assets support the achievement of a company’s strategic outcomes. The paper investigates the role and relevance of knowledge assets in a company’s performance improvement and provides some approaches, tools and managerial suggestions regarding the leveraging knowledge assets as value drivers for improving organisational performance. Methodology: The study is based on action research methodology. Findings: This paper highlights the role and relevance of knowledge assets as critical factors to manage for improving a company’s performance. In particular, integrating the results of an action research project with the main insights from a literature review, the paper provides some approaches, tools and managerial suggestions mainly regarding: i) the identification and mapping of knowledge assets to be managed in order to improve performances; ii) the choice and the design of knowledge assets management initiatives; iii) the evaluation of the performance improvement gained by the implementation of knowledge assets management initiatives. Research limitations: The paper investigates the leveraging knowledge assets for a company’s performance improvement in a specific context of analysis, i.e. the New Product Development (NPD) process. In order to have a more holistic view of the interactions between knowledge assets and company’s value creation mechanisms, an extension of the investigation to other organisational processes is required. Moreover, to generalise the research’s results, several applications in different industries and the use of different research methodologies are required. Practical implications: The paper, on the basis of theoretical and empirical insights, provides four managerial practices which managers might use in order to design and implement knowledge assets management initiatives aimed to support the improvement of company’s performances. Originality/value: The paper provides more light on how knowledge assets and complementarities among them enhance organization’s performances and provides approaches, tools and managerial suggestions for supporting managers in developing and leveraging knowledge assets. Especially the proposed approaches and tools intended to provide managers with information to assist them to allocate their managerial efforts to the knowledge assets with significant impact on performance.

 

Keywords: knowledge assets, new product development, performance improvement, knowledge assets management, action research.

 

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