The knowledge being shared for cooperation may also be useful for competitive purposes. Whilst this situation is acknowledged, there is no through analysis of how it has been investigated and treated in prior research studies. This paper reviews the liter
ature on simultaneous cooperative and competitive knowledge sharing. It also contributes to this area through an analytical review that compares the literature linked to this phenomenon and identifies their strengths and limitations. The analysis of the f
indings suggests that efforts in this area have been undertaken independently and with little consideration of the prior studies in different but related realms. The findings suggest the benefits of integrating different bodies of literature in building o
n a broader platform of existing epistemological and ontological foundations.