The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management aims to publish perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of knowledge management
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Journal Article

Design of Sustainable Development: Intellectual Value of Large BRIC Companies and Factors of their Growth  pp535-558

Elvina Bayburina, Tatiana Golovko

© Jan 2010 Volume 7 Issue 5, Editor: Kimiz Dalkir, pp535 - 662

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Abstract

Intellectual capital and its components can be regarded as the source for a company's organic growth to maintain sustainable development. Under the crisis conditions most of financial reserves are unavailable; the inner organizational efficiency by means of intellectual capital is a question of survival edge for most of the large companies of emerging markets. Multidirectional trends of the development of BRIC economies played a significant role in this discussion and the issue became more complicated under the pressure of the crisis. Notwithstanding BRIC countries can be regarded as leaders of so‑called developing economies. In terms of the downturn, however, the problem of the crisis should not be overstated: due to the cyclical changes of the world economy the stagnation will be rearranged by upturn sooner or later, however the accumulation of intellectual capital is the over time process. Intellectual capital of the company and its components can be regarded as "latent reserves" of the long term value growth. Intellectual capital is the "intangible safety‑cushion" and it can be used only by those companies who have created it years before and therefore have focused on sustainable development. The research of intellectual capital components and its role in value creation and building competitive advantage can remain an actual topic for empirical investigations, carried out in various countries and by different research centers. The intellectual value of a company is a part of the total value, created through the process of the intellectual components' accumulation. The main goal of this research is to evaluate by means of the panel data analysis the influence of particular components of intellectual capital on the intellectual value of BRIC companies. The process of intellectual capital accumulation is over time and it can be measured according to the long run panel data analysis not less than 5 years. The panel data analysis revealed that the human capital can be considered the key factor of the long‑term growth of BRIC companies of all industries. Employees and their competencies are this basis which is undervalued currently whereas most of financial assets lost trust and its value. However, specified directions of internal reserves audit and discussion of the Intellectual value on the emerging markets are very close to the fact that large BRIC companies depend a lot on the specific features of the infrastructure of each developing country. India and Russia are countries with the industrial potential, which is not fully realized, e.g. a lot of Russian companies are underinvested with unbalanced development strategies. Decrepit and out‑of‑date production facilities, in turn capital expenditures are a matter of great importance. The capital expenditures together with innovative managers and management techniques tend to be the leverage, which can push these companies towards intensive development, especially Russian companies.

 

Keywords: intellectual capital, human capital, stakeholders, growth drivers, sustainable competitive advantage, value, intellectual value, financial crisis, BRIC, developing countries, emerging markets

 

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Journal Article

Key Performance Indicators Metrics Effect on the Advancement and Sustainability of Knowledge Management  pp149-154

Mohamed Rabhi

© Apr 2011 Volume 9 Issue 2, ICICKM 2010 special issue, Editor: W.B. Lee, pp85 - 180

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Abstract

This paper addresses the relationship between the value of data and KPs as they relate to the sustainability of knowledge management (KM). Numerical data are compelling metrics to persuade executives and management in the organization of the significance of Knowledge Management. External statistics are usually less impactful than internal data. Nonetheless, and in the absence of internal data at the early phases of KM projects, many companies collect published data for comparable industries. In the present case, we compiled information from previous experiences of companies in the same line of business; therefore, management by‑in was secured, and the KM project was, to some extent, successfully implemented. However, there was a need to generate in‑house numbers to support promises and claims of KM benefits, and persuade all KM players from the technician to the organisation president; the ultimate objective is to have a sustainable Knowledge Management project across the organization, with visible, concrete, and quantifiable results. Equipped with the assertion “data is power”, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and other metrics were devised and integrated into our KM processes; these measurements are being pulled out systematically, and published to the whole audience. KPIs measured included the effect of KM on (i) customer satisfaction, (ii) business impact (i.e. savings), (iii) number of projects completed on time, (iv) and the number of technical reports generated per unit of research area. Over the past few years, the data we generated shows a considerable increase in customer satisfaction with our research and technical services; significant savings were obtained each year; project timely completion indicator rose to high levels as compared to previous yearly data; the electronic technical and scientific library experienced a build up of valuable know‑how reports. Knowledge re‑use as shown by reliance on internal resources was the standard and routine practice. On the other hand, many other qualitative observations, like effect on health, safety, and the environment are being quantified for inclusion in the KPI reporting. Based on the accumulated data, we believe that numerical values coupled with other tangible solid results will ensure a viable and sustainable KM in our organization. This hypothesis is supported by five year data and trend analysis. It confirms that internally generated statistics is a powerful tool to sway and re‑assure the organization that KM can indeed increase efficiency, enhance customer satisfaction, and drive savings.

 

Keywords: KM, sustainable, metrics, data, KPI, statistics, know how

 

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Journal Article

Intellectual Capital, trust, cultural traits and reputation in the Romanian education system  pp223-235

Marta-Christina Suciu, Luciana Picioruş, Cosmin Ionuţ Imbrişcă

© Jul 2012 Volume 10 Issue 3, ECIC 2012, Editor: John Dumay, pp208 - 278

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Abstract

The contemporary approach to the concept of intellectual capital has transformed. The three components (human, relational and organizational capital) are not enough to reflect reality, as the static perspective was replaced by an integrative vision: i ntangible resources, actions and process that contribute to sustainable competitive advantage. However, this theoretical division provides solid ground for explaining the close bond between trust, cultural identity and cooperation, soft concepts, and in tellectual capital in knowledge‑based organizations. Therefore, we consider it is of high interest to identify the nature of the relational and organizational capital, and trust association. Is it first trust and then the two intellectual capital componen ts, or the other way around? Also, we can take one step further and consider the intellectual capital formation process and architectural scheme behind it. This paper aims firstly at offering a theoretical framework for the liaisons between the concepts p reviously mentioned and intellectual capital, underlying specific characteristics for the Romanian educational system, especially for tertiary /higher education. The second objective is to provide new research directions, comparing the findings with situa tions of other cultures, like Japan and USA. The research methodology comprises a thorough literature review of scientific studies and of the 2011 National Romanian Education Law. It focuses on the changes and challenges for the intellectual capital forma tion phase. Also, it involves an empirical investigation of an evaluation of the current intellectual capital formation route. The research instrument is a questionnaire, collecting information for both quantitative and qualitative research purposes. The findings of this paper seek to identify the structure and dynamics of the intellectual capital formation process in the Romanian higher education system. As well, we hope to lead to concrete solutions for improving general dynamics, and acknowledgment of trust, cooperation and cultural aspects as corner stones in education intellectual capital formation area.

 

Keywords: Intellectual Capital, trust, cooperation, education, organizational culture, human capital, sustainable competitive advantage.

 

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Journal Article

A Knowledge Management System for Exchanging and Creating Knowledge in Organic Farming  pp164-183

Vincent Soulignac, Jean-Louis Ermine, Jean-Luc Paris, Olivier Devise, Jean-Pierre Chanet

© Mar 2012 Volume 10 Issue 2, ICICKM 2011, Editor: Vincent Ribière, pp110 - 207

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Abstract

: Agriculture must evolve into a more environmentally‑friendly approach while remaining economically workable. This type of agriculture is said to be sustainable. It has a systemic logic and therefore requires a strong knowledge base. In this study we propose a knowledge management IT‑based system. In the first part of our article, we discuss the potential actors of the system and their possible implications. The second part deals with the knowledge selection and formalization. The third part describes the main computing features of the knowledge server we propose.

 

Keywords: sustainable agriculture, organic farming, knowledge management system for agriculture knowledge modeling

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 7 Issue 5 / Dec 2009  pp535‑662

Editor: Kimiz Dalkir

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Editorial

The 9th ICICKM conference, held at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, was well attended by participants representing over 20 different countries. The international flavor of the conference continues to ensure a diverse range of papers as well as opportunities for valuable networking. As with all ICICKM gatherings, researchers, practitioners and students of KM were brought together to discuss the KM crossroads we find ourselves at in the year 2009.

Some of the key issues that emerged from the two days included a consensus that KM has evolved so we no longer need to convince people it is needed. We now need now to know how to “do KM” – that is, how to implement knowledge management in organizations in a more informed manner. In particular, the need for more how‑to guides, detailed rules, good validated practices and an overall quasi‑standard approach to KM implementation were noted as priority needs for the KM community. In addition, particular guidance is required concerning the KM teams (who should do what?) and how best to address tacit knowledge. Other issues concerned the specific components that should be present in a KM workspace and how this workspace can address the needs of different users who need to accomplish different sorts of tasks

While participants felt that we still have to convince some senior managers, we now also need to better address how to align KM processes so as to not create overhead. For example, what is the impact of KM on other parts of the organization such as training and IT units? How can we change peoples’ behaviours and how they think about the work they do? What are the new skills/competencies needed? How can they acquire them? How to integrate KM into business processes? How to integrate KM roles within existing jobs?

The good news is that the discipline and practice of KM has evolved – the bad news is that we still have a long way to go. The focus is now on how to do KM well. Educators need to focus on student competencies, skills and roles and responsibilities. Researchers need to focus on more evidence‑based and theory‑based KM. Practitioners need to focus on feedback from users and best practices.

The collection of papers in this special conference edition address the multitude of issues we currently face, and will continue to face, in the future. There is an excellent mix of practical case studies, practical tools such as intellectual capital measurement models in addition to more conceptual and theoretical approaches to solving crucial KM problems.

 

Keywords: academic education, avatars, ba, BRIC, competitive intelligence, complexity of choice, creative destruction, decision-making, developing countries, discipline, emerging markets, experiment, financial crisis, group interaction, growth drivers, human capital, Indian economy, Information Technology sector, intangible assets, Intellectual capital, intellectual value, KM in interconnected power systems, Knowledge Active Forgetting (KAF), knowledge capital, knowledge management implementation, management support systems, measurement, methods of assessment, paradigm, SET KM model, stakeholders, strategy, sustainable competitive advantage, technology, theoretical framework, UK car manufacturing industry, undergraduate degree program in Turkey, unlearning, virtual environments

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 9 Issue 2, ICICKM 2010 special issue / Apr 2011  pp85‑180

Editor: W.B. Lee

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Editorial

Prof. W.B. Lee is Director of the Knowledge Management Research Centre of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.    Prof. Lee is the editor of the Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, and International Journal of Knowledge and Systems Science. He established the Knowledge Solution Laboratory, the first of its kind in Hong Kong and has pioneered research and practice of knowledge management and knowledge audit in various organizations.  Prof. Lee and his team have launched Asia’s first on‑line MSc. Program in Knowledge Management.  His research interest  includes manufacturing systems, knowledge management, organizational learning and intellectual capital‑based management.

Editorial

The 7th International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management & Organizational Learning (ICICKM 2010) was hosted by the Knowledge Management Research Centre ,The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China, the first time in Asia.

The conference is well attended by more than 100 delegates from over 30 countries and regions.  This conference series is unique in the sense that it unifies all the important themes in this multidisciplinary area which can be pursued from either the knowledge management, intellectual capital management or organizational learning perspectives or any combinations of them.  The relationship between these themes is important. It is  only  through  the effective management of our knowledge assets  and the continuous  learning   of   individuals, teams and  organization  that we  are able to build the intellectual capital which is the underlying power driving corporation’s future growth.

Apart from the rich tacit knowledge exchange among delegates during the conference, the conference proceedings give a good record of papers delivered at the conference. Our thanks and appreciation go out to all those who presented papers and participated in the conference. Feedback to date from delegates and participants has been extremely positive. The support from departments within the University and our session Chairs and Keynote speakers is gratefully acknowledged. We also recognize the efforts of both the Executive and Conference Committees for their contribution to the double blind peer review process. Based on the input of the session chairs, we are able to select 10 papers of these to be published in this electronic Journal.  These cover a lot of topics including KM models, strategy, innovation, organizational leaning, and intellectual capital measurement, and provide various new insights to the readers.

Grant started by asking the question if knowledge Management (KM) is just another fab.   Through the lens of management fashion theory and a good review from bibliometric evidence he assures us that KM is unlike other management themes and is an enduring management activity. However, there is a potential conflict between the interests of practitioners and researchers. With different perspectives and prescriptions, Imani furthers the discussion by examining the KM strategy in 18 global companies and finds out how they are linked to the business strategy, which are either formulaic (to support routine activities) or embryonic (to address corporate strategic agenda).  On the other hand, Tan and Nasurdin focus on the influence of KM effectiveness on innovation in 171 large manufacturing firms in Malaysia and find out that the effectiveness of knowledge acquisition has a positive influence on both the technological and administrative (organizational) innovation. 

Another issue of concern to researchers in this conference is on how knowledge management  is linked to business performance and its evaluation. These findings and observations are reinforced in a study conducted by Rabhi in Saudi Arabia on the effect of KM on the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), including customer satisfaction, business savings and projects completed. Tiago et al. studied the relationship between the knowledge management and eBusiness activities by applying a structural equation model in a large database of KM activities of European and American firms. In a study of performance of a Quality Assurance Department conducted by Chan in an electronic factory, the performance of the quality management processes is related to the intellectual capital involved which is captured from a knowledge audit of the plant.

De Alvarenga Neto and Vieira from their Brazil experience described the four main components of KM Model in a Brazilian research  cooperation, that is, strategy, the environment (from social, information, cognitive and business), tool boxes, and  tangible and intangible outputs, and concluded that  for the model to be useful it should be collaboratively built  among  organization units instead of one from top‑down. Inter‑organizational and organizational learning has been recognized to be important for knowledge creation. Laursen, based on an empirical study of four organizational development projects at four Danish high schools revealdifferent perspectives on the projects set up by the staff and the management and how the perspectives have consequences  on what is actually learned by individuals as well as the whole organization.  As team learning and performance is closely related to the shared mental models of the team members, Zou and Lee explored the shared mental model of eight sigma project teams through collective sensemaking workshops conducted in an electronics factory in China. It was found that a high performance team perceived stronger interrelatedness between key teamwork concepts than average teams did.  An area that has been less studied is the effect of age diversity on knowledge transfer in workplace, which roots from the retirement of baby boom generation in many mature organizations. Wang and Dong undertook a study on some basic questions in intergenerational knowledge transfer such as analysis framework and transfer mechanism from a sociological perspective.  

Despite the diversity of topics they all tend to address on how KM performance is related to business goals, how the effectiveness is evaluated and how organizational learning takes place,  one feature of all these papers is that they all have data to support their cases and cut across various countries and cultures.  I hope this special issue serves as a timely and updated reference for the KM, IC and OL professions.

 

Keywords: Action Research, administrative innovation, BA, bibliometric analysis, data, development projects, educational partnerships, Embrapa, embryonic KM strategy, enabling contexts, , formulaic KM strategy, group quality assurance, human resource management practices, IC value tree, implementation of knowledge , innovation diffusion, innovative teaching, intellectual capital, intellectual capital statement, KM strategy, KM strategy as social practice, know-how, knowledge management effectiveness, knowledge management, , knowledge-based view of organizations, KPI, link between KM and business strategy, Malaysian manufacturing firms , management fashion, metrics, organizational coaching, organizational concepts, organizational learning, practicum, process innovation, product innovation, reflective practitioner, statistics, sustainable, taxonomy, the SET KM model, transfer of training, value added quality management processes, workplace development,

 

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