The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management aims to publish perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of knowledge management
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Information about the European Conference on Intellectual Capital (ECIC) is available here
 

Journal Article

Tacit Knowledge and Pedagogy at UK Universities: Challenges for Effective Management  pp61-74

Harvey Wright

© Jul 2008 Volume 6 Issue 1, Editor: Charles Despres, pp1 - 74

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Abstract

This paper hopes to persuade readers of current thinking around Knowledge Management that more emphasis should be placed on tacit knowledge in management and its education and how it might be better communicated to students within universities and in organisations in general. It reflects upon what appears to be the predominant attention being paid to explicit knowledge in the curriculum and pedagogy of UK Universities which offer courses entitled Knowledge Management, and that this may be at the expense of more tacit knowledge 'management' approaches.

 

Keywords: knowledge management, KM, tacit knowledge communication pedagogy curriculum didactic v constructionist university curriculum on knowledge management

 

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Journal Article

The Role of Knowledge Flow in the Thai GUIN Version of the Triple Helix Model  pp287-296

Lugkana Worasinchai

© Jun 2009 Volume 7 Issue 2, ICICKM 2008, Editor: Kevin O'Sullivan, pp199 - 296

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Abstract

The "triple helix" model is considered as being a spiral model of innovation contributing to the country and regional improvement by fostering interactions between academic, industry and government. This model highlights the ties between the three parties at different stages in the process of knowledge capitalization and flow. Although, this model has proven to be effective in some countries, some questions remain regarding its effective implementation in Thailand. This paper presents an adapted version of the helix model that could contribute to development of ties among stakeholders through strategic alliances. The success key factors leading to an economic development mission by universities are as well discussed.

 

Keywords: triple helix model, knowledge capitalization, Thailand, research network, innovation, university- industry interaction, framework G-U-I-N

 

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Journal Article

Activities and Outputs of a Clinical Faculty: an Intellectual Capital Concept Map  pp647-662

Belinda Wilkinson, Clare Beghtol, Dante Morra

© Jan 2010 Volume 7 Issue 5, Editor: Kimiz Dalkir, pp535 - 662

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Abstract

The concept of intellectual capital (IC) was used to evaluate the activities and outputs of a university medical department. First, a conceptual framework was developed to highlight the importance of various activities as dimensions of IC. The conceptualization of IC was further developed using concept mapping (CM). The authors first considered the problem of what comprises IC and determined whether previous researchers have defined IC in terms of activities. The importance of IC, its definition as an organizational resource and activity, the link between IC and value creation and extraction activities, and the problem of the associated composition of IC taken from existing European guidelines and regulations were discussed. To begin to construct a classification of activities and outputs, the information currently employed for assessing the research, education, and related academic activities and outputs of faculty members were analyzed. Four different evaluation approaches were compared to identify the activities and outputs of a university medical department, and to consolidate the information being collected for evaluation of universities, university‑affiliated research institutes, researchers within universities, and faculty within university departments into an inclusive set of activities and outputs. These were two forms of IC reporting, one used in Austrian universities and the other at a university‑affiliated Swedish research institute together with two other long‑established means of assessing faculty, the Research Assessment Exercise in the UK, and the faculty evaluation and promotion requirements at the University of Toronto in Canada. Education administrators' perceptions were solicited to derive the IC used in a research faculty of a Canadian university. The results indicate that IC can be understood in terms of both activities and outputs. Clinical faculty can be expected to engage in research and its supervision, education, obtaining qualifications, clinical and professional practice, and service. Within these categories, individual activities and outputs were not considered to be of equal importance or impact. Among seventy activities and outputs, articles in internationally refereed journals was ranked as most important, whereas teaching awards was ranked as having the most impact by the most participants. This study extends existing research by using CM to generate a conceptual framework of IC for a department of medicine.

 

Keywords: intellectual capital, guidelines, concept mapping, university medical department, clinical faculty, education administrators

 

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Journal Article

Inter‑generational learning dynamics in universities  pp10-18

Constantin Bratianu, Adriana Agapie, Ivona Orzea, Simona Agoston

© Mar 2011 Volume 9 Issue 1, ECKM Special Issue, Editor: Eduardo Tome, pp1 - 84

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Abstract

Inter generational learning is an open process people of all ages can learn from each other in a stimulating context. It is a complex process of knowledge sharing that overcomes age and cultural barriers. Inter‑generational learning is more specific for those organizations where people group together in age layers or strata. Universities are such kind of layered or nested organizations. The purpose of this paper is to present some results of our research in the field of inter‑generational learning and knowledge sharing in universities. This topic is important because a university is by its own nature a nested knowledge organization, due to a continuous flow of students and the bottom‑up regeneration of the faculty staff. Knowledge creation and knowledge loss are intertwined processes, and both of them are strongly influenced by the age scale. A university is a multilayered knowledge organization, where the inner most layers are represented by older professors who concentrate the fundamental structures of knowledge, and the outer layers are represented by students in their different learning cycles. In this paper we are interested in assessing the choices done by the academic staff, in the context of the determinant criterions and trade‑offs in inter‑generational learning. This had been done in the framework of Analytic Hierarchic Processes (AHP). We thought that this is a proper tool since it mainly belongs to the field of decision‑making with the possibility to determine vectors of priorities for the individuals participating in the decisions under study.

 

Keywords: learning dynamics, university, knowledge sharing, knowledge creation, analytic hierarchy process

 

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Journal Article

Knowledge Creation through University‑Industry Collaborative Research Projects  pp43-54

Julie Hermansand Annick Castiaux

© Mar 2007 Volume 5 Issue 1, ECKM 2006, Editor: Charles Despres, pp1 - 130

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Abstract

It is obvious from the study of literature that university‑industry (U‑I) relationships and their subsequent knowledge transfers are topics of high political, economical, managerial and academic interest. Indeed, technological knowledge is seen as a major source of long‑term economic growth and its transfer to the firm is critical since it acts as a significant innovation factor. In order to access this knowledge, a portfolio of sourcing strategies is available to the firm: knowledge creation through internal RandD departments, knowledge sharing with suppliers or market relationships, and also transfer from knowledge institutions such as public and private research centres. In this paper, we recognISe that University is a central source of knowledge but we question the general belief that knowledge is per se flowing between private and academic sphere through the conduct of University‑Industry relationships. As a result, this paper presents our literature analysis concerning this research topic and explores one particular mean of inter‑organisational knowledge transfer, namely the University‑Industry collaborative research project. We present findings from an exploratory study, which aims at examining knowledge flows and collaborative behaviours at stake in such research projects. This interview survey has been realised with respondents actively involved in Belgian university‑industry (U‑I) interactions and provides qualitative data analysed through the theoretical framework of organisational knowledge creation developed by Nonaka and Takeuchi. We found evidence supporting the existence of a knowledge spiral as a dynamic for the whole projects and identified some knowledge‑based limits to the reconciliation process between university's interests and company's needs.

 

Keywords: university-industry interactions, knowledge transfer, Nonaka

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 5 Issue 1, ECKM 2006 / Feb 2007  pp1‑130

Editor: Charles Despres

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Editorial

"The 7th annual European Conference on Knowledge Management 2006 held in Budapest produced a particularly interesting set of papers. KM as a field of academic endeavor continues to produce signs of maturity in the sense that the quality of contributions is markedly higher than in the past. But the tendency to fracture along multiple disciplinary boundaries remains.

The result is that selecting papers from the conference for inclusion in the Journal is more challenging than ever. Fourteen papers were chosen in the end however, and these from a wide range of authors based in Universities around the world.

Topics addressed by papers included in this edition are especially eclectic which, given KM´s multidisciplinary roots and transversal nature, reflects the multiplicity of the basic phenomenon (human and collective cognition, secondarily applied to organizational contexts). In some respects this characteristic is frustrating but also challenging, and there are researchers who find this motivating. Perhaps because the intellectual perimeters are multiple and loose. Perhaps because paradigms shift by traversing a path of intellectual mosaics.

On the other hand the fact is that after about two decades of serious research by the academic community KM is ‑ at best ‑ showing only weak signs of convergence. If maturing in terms of quality and productivity, it remains young in terms of disciplinary comportment. I once listened to a French cultural anthropologist explain to a French television crew why he had chosen to live and work in the United States (his business being to de‑code European culture for the American marketing machine).

He told them that European culture was an old culture with its codes well sorted and established. He characterized American cultural codes as young, searching and mixed, not unlike adolescents the world over no matter what their national origin. In the end he explained that after weighing the pros and cons he finally decided that he thoroughly preferred being mixed up with the young and the restless. The freedom and frontiers of youth being ""better"" than the standards and strictures of establishment.

This could very well be part of the attraction that KM has for a growing number of academics around the world. I have found the papers in this edition of value and I hope that you will as well."

 

Keywords: adaptive testing, affects, collective search, communities of practice, concept design, discourse analysis, information exchange, innovation, intellectual capital, knowledge cooperation, knowledge process, knowledge sharing, knowledge spiral model, knowledge transfer, Nonaka, online communities, ontology, organisational learning, story telling, tacit knowledge, university-industry interactions, user-centred design

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 5 Issue 2, ICICKM 2006 / May 2007  pp131‑254

Editor: Dan Remenyi

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Editorial

This Special Issue of EJKM originated from the papers delivered at ICICKM 2006 in Santiago de Chile in October last year. Of course the papers have been improved by their authors since they were first presented and are now offered to a much wider audience.

The 12 papers in this edition are especially interesting in that I have seldom seen such a wide diversity of subjects. This collection is indeed strong evidence that the topic of Knowledge Management and its co‑traveller Intellectual Capital have a remarkably diverse scope. A few years ago, perhaps a dozen or so, some academics might have thrown up their hands in horror. ""How can we have a discipline with such porous boundaries?"" I imagine them to have said. Well in today's academic world boundaries are increasingly difficult to define and more difficult to maintain. Subjects blur into each other. And this phenomenon is not the result of a new way of research or thinking. It is simply the result of being more cognoscente of the way the world actually works.

It would of course be wrong to say that boundaries between subjects no longer exist or that they are no longer relevant. But it is true to say that we have now a much more open mind about how we think of research and how we combine different fields of studies. We have for a while been talking about multidisciplinary research. Then we focused on interdisciplinary research. Today we sometimes talk about trans‑disciplinary research. When anyone is brave enough to ask what these terms actually mean academics often run for cover.

For me the terms multidisciplinary research or interdisciplinary research or trans‑disciplinary research signals that we are focusing on a real problem which like so many situations in business needs to be understood and managed while bearing in mind that it is unlikely that any one centre of knowledge will be able to provide the whole answer.

The diversity in this edition of EJKM supports this notion.

 

Keywords: adaptive testing, affects, collective search, communities of practice, concept design, discourse analysis, information exchange, innovation, intellectual capital, knowledge cooperation, knowledge process, knowledge sharing, knowledge spiral model, knowledge transfer, Nonaka, online communities, ontology, organisational learning, story telling, tacit knowledge, university-industry interactions, user-centred design

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 6 Issue 2, ICICKM 2007 / Oct 2008  pp1‑116

Editor: Rembrandt Klopper

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Editorial

It has been an informative and enjoyable experience to edit the ten articles in the present issue of EJKM. The editorial presents a brief overview of the ten contributions. AlAmmary and Fung’s contribution focuses on the need for present‑day organizations to actively incorporate knowledge strategy (KS) into their Business Strategy (BS) because knowledge is recognized as a strategic element in the performance of organizations. They test the hypothesis that the alignment between BS (BS) and KS has a positive effect on organizational performance. The overall finding of AlAmmary and Fung’s research is that there is a strong association between KS and BS and that the alignment between KS and BS clearly influences the organizational performance.

Cruywagen, Swart and Gevers present a typology that takes into account differences among knowledge‑centric organizations. They observe that the knowledge management literature is characterised by frameworks for knowledge management implementation, which tend to prescribe best‑practice methods to companies. The authors point out that a key weakness of these frameworks is their inability to account for contextual differences. Consequently many organisations attempt to apply a knowledge management framework that simply doesn’t fit the organisational context, resulting in little or no benefit from their efforts. A shift in focus from best practice to best fit is necessary to account for the difference in organisational contexts.

They propose that a social constructionist approach to the research affords the opportunity to identify areas of significant variation in knowledge management context and practices within knowledge‑centric organisations.

Cranfield and Taylor report the results of a survey that they conducted regarding how Higher Education Institutions in the UK utilize KM. They state that although KM is widely regarded in the business world as an essential tool the application of KM is relatively under‑developed in UK higher education, and that on top of that the recent history of UK higher education is sprinkled with examples of failure in the effective management of knowledge. Cranfield and Taylor note that the study of KM in universities in the UK is complicated by the facts that such institutions generally historically, locationally and financially tend to be very different. Their paper sets out to answer the following questions: To what extent are HEIs moving towards adopting KM principles given the changing environment of HEIs? Are HEIs starting to realize the benefits of adopting KM principles to enhance efficiency and competitiveness? What are the current and intended practices within the UK? What are the factors that hinder or promote the implementation of KM within Higher Education?

Girard and Allison focus on factual, fabulous and fallacious aspects of claims about information anxiety. The authors state that the concept of anxiety created by information has been studied for hundreds of years, Their paper focuses on the complex relationship of five subcomponents of information anxiety as described by Wurman’s book Information Anxiety, namely not understanding information, feeling overwhelmed by the amount of information to be understood, not knowing if certain information exists, not knowing where to find information and knowing exactly where to find the information, but not having the key to access it.

Griffiths and Remenyi use a case study approach to provide a better understanding of the knowledge management requirements for professional organizations that offer a range of information technology consulting services. The authors set out by analyzing four different sets of secondary data contained in previously published accounts of knowledge management in four different professional services organizations. They then used the information to create a general framework for the effective use of knowledge management in an information technology consulting service. The framework was subsequently presented to 12 partners in a small consulting firm as the departure point for a Socratic Dialogue about the topic. Socratic Dialogue analysis led the authors to establish nine key issues for the more effective management of knowledge in professional services organizations.

Lucardie, Hendriks and Van Ham present the results of their research on the relationship between knowledge management and business improvement within the context of the continuously growing complexity of market processes that is strengthening the logical role of knowledge as the organization’s core capability to maximize business performance. The authors state that conceptions of knowledge and knowledge representation, however, prove to be highly unproductive because explicit knowledge management initiatives reinforce the production of information instead of reducing and managing knowledge. They state that a basic problem is the disentangling of knowledge from knowledge representation formalisms. The authors claim that adopting a functional view of the nature of knowledge reveals and restores the strong relation between knowledge and corporate effectiveness. The functional view does not only enable content improvement through rational classifications, but also enhances process descriptions and process implementations. It also aligns information technology to the new demands set by the knowledge economy by enabling goal‑oriented, transparent and easy‑to‑use‑and‑modify knowledge structures. The paper describes a real world case taken from the financial services industry to exemplify how a functional analysis of realizes significant increases in business performance.

Lumba and Smith’s paper is based on the results of a study that explored the knowledge management practices and challenges in an international NGO network. The investigation constituted comparative case studies of two centres (Zambia and the Netherlands) belonging to a single international network. An empirically grounded framework of knowledge management practices based on the taxonomy, proposed by Holsapple and Joshi, was utilised as the reference framework for the study. Recommendations are proposed to improve knowledge management practices at local and international level. They include enhanced technical and advisory services at international level, capacity building, creating greater awareness of knowledge management, decentralization of knowledge management processes; implementation of a knowledge management strategy at network level and improving relationships between centres.

Papoutsakis focuses on differences in research methods when empirically measuring organizational characteristics that focus on inter‑group, knowledge‑based collaboration and when measuring the characteristics of individuals. The author states that organizational researchers have recently used the empirical technique to obtain quantifiable information on organizational structure, internal power distribution, within the group, and external relationships among groups that base their collaboration on the knowledge they share.

Smith adopts the premise that technological innovation, a critical factor in the long‑term economic growth of any country, can only function successfully within a social environment that provides relevant knowledge and information inputs into the innovative process. This is dependent on the efficient transfer and communication of knowledge and information, which in turn relates to the amount and quality of interaction among scientists and technologists. These factors prompted a research project that used social network analysis techniques to investigate knowledge exchange and to map the knowledge network structure and communication practices of a group of scientists engaged with crystallographic research. This paper is based on this research project. The author’s findings provide evidence of a strong social network structure among crystallographers in South Africa. A core nucleus of prominent, well connected and interrelated crystallographers constituted the central network of scientists that provided the main impetus to keep the network active. According to Smith, the core group of crystallographers were not only approached far more frequently for information and advice than any of their colleagues, but they also frequently initiated interpersonal and formal information communication acts. It was clear that this core group had achieved a standard of excellence in their work, were highly productive; very visible in their professional community and generally played a pivotal role in the social network.

According to Timonen and Paloheimo there has been a proliferation of research on knowledge work over the past decades. The authors make the point that knowledge work has mostly been used as antonym to manual work, to refer to specific occupations characterized by an emphasis on specialized skills and the use of theoretical knowledge. The efforts to encompass all the various contexts where knowledge plays a relevant role in work tasks, has resulted in various and ambiguous definitions of what knowledge work actually is. In order to shed light on the elusive concept of knowledge work, Timonen and Paloheimo studied how it has appeared in the scientific discussion, and diffused from one scientific community to another. They examined the emergence and diffusion of the concept of knowledge work through a citation analysis on articles from the Social Sciences Citation Index. The authors distinguish three periods of diffusion of the concept of knowledge work. The results show that Drucker’s In the age of discontinuity (1969) and Bell’s The coming of post‑industrial society (1968) were the main influencers when the concept of knowledge work emerged in the scientific discussion from 1974 to 1992. After this period, the authors discern a slow diffusion period from 1993 to 2003, when the concept started to gain attention, and a fast diffusion period from 1999 to 2003, when the research has proliferated.

 

Keywords: alliance organization calculated intangible value communication concept of ba curriculum didactic v constructionist distributed collective practices dynamic capabilities dynamic learning mechanism fundamental value of intangible assets intellectual capital interaction knowledge articulation knowledge circles knowledge creation tacit knowledge knowledge management systems market value Pakistani pedagogy peer-to-peer systems social experience factory knowledge sharing university curriculum on knowledge management value creation

 

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