Cross‑cultural Validation of UTAUT: The Case of University VLEs in Jordan, Russia and the UK pp25-34
Abstract: Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) are learning platforms within universities aiming to facilitate and enhance students’ learning. In order to increase the chances for success of VLEs implementation it is essential to identify the factors which influence the students’ decision making as far as accepting and using VLEs are concerned. In this paper we are applying one of the most popular models, the so‑called Uniﬁed Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model developed by Venkatesh et al. (2003) to identify and test the underlying factors influencing VLE acceptance and use. UTAUT is a relatively new model sparsely applied in cross‑cultural settings and in the context of Higher Education (Straub, 2009). We are testing the model in four business schools in universities in three different countries: the UK, Russia and Jordan. The results show that although all items from the original UTAUT questionnaire have their place in the final groupings obtained through the factor analysis, the ‘clean’ agglomeration of items into groups shown by the original paper and a few others could not be replicated in the individual countries or in the overall sample despite the good sample size obtained in our study. The paper raises a question about the replicability of the original results and calls for reconsideration of the way the model is applied.