The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management publishes original articles on topics relevant to studying, implementing, measuring and managing knowledge management and intellectual capital.

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Journal Article

Measuring the Impacts of an IC Development Service: the Case of the Pietari Business Campus  pp469-480

Paula Kujansivu, Antti Lönnqvist

© Aug 2009 Volume 7 Issue 4, ECIC 2009, Editor: Christiaan Stam, Daan Andriessen, pp397 - 534

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Intellectual capital (IC) development includes a wide set of activities focusing on the improvement of an organisation's intangible resources. However, it is often unclear what kind of impacts different IC initiatives have. The current literature lacks appropriate methods for identifying and measuring them. If it is not possible to assess the impact of various development activities it is difficult to justify IC investments or choose between alternative service providers. This paper, based on a case study, examines how to assess the impacts of an IC development initiative. The empirical research setting is the Pietari Business Campus, a knowledge‑intensive business service organisation providing various development services for its twelve member companies operating in the St. Petersburg region in Russia. In this paper, the literature is first examined to understand how the impacts of development activities can be assessed in different contexts. The characteristics of these approaches are then utilised to formulate the assessment methodology used in the case study. The empirical assessment consists of both numerical indicator data and subjective interview data. The case study showed that the activities and outputs can be measured quite accurately but that the outcomes are difficult to capture. The main challenge results from external changes taking place and making it difficult to observe the outcomes of development activities. Due to the challenging nature of the assessment task and the relatively low managerial priority of the issue (on the customers' side) it is suggested that subjective assessment methods may provide sufficient information in many cases. Although this paper is focused on IC development, there may be similar contexts in other knowledge‑intensive services in which the lessons of this study might be useful.


Keywords: effect, impact, intellectual capital, intellectual capital development, knowledge-intensive business service, measurement, service


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Journal Article

Human Resource Management Practices and Organizational Innovation: Assessing the Mediating Role of Knowledge Management Effectiveness  pp155-167

Cheng Ling Tan, Aizzat Mohd Nasurdin

© Apr 2011 Volume 9 Issue 2, ICICKM 2010 special issue, Editor: W.B. Lee, pp85 - 180

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Organizational innovation has been viewed as an essential weapon for organizations to compete in this competitive business environment. Particularly, Malaysia manufacturing firms strive to transform their business model from labor‑intensive to knowledge‑intensive, which aim to immerse themselves in higher value added activities such as, developing new products, processes, and services, to continual sustain the competitiveness within the rivalries. One of the ways to heighten the organizational innovation is through effective human resource management (HRM) practices and effective knowledge management. This study examined the direct relationships between HRM practices (performance appraisal, career management, training, reward system, and recruitment) and organizational innovation (product innovation, process innovation, and administrative innovation). Additionally, it also examined the mediating role of KM effectiveness on the direct relationship. Data was drawn from a sample of 171 large manufacturing firms in Malaysia. The regression results showed that HRM practices generally have a positive effect on organizational innovation. Specifically, the findings indicate that training was positively related to three dimensions of organizational innovation (product innovation, process innovation, and administrative innovation). Performance appraisal also found to have a positive effect on administrative innovation. Additionally, this study also demonstrates that training and performance appraisal, are positively related to knowledge management effectiveness. Knowledge management effectiveness fully mediates the relationship between training and process innovation, training and administrative innovation, and performance appraisal and administrative innovation. A discussion of the findings, limitations, and implications are provided.


Keywords: human resource management practices, product innovation, process innovation, administrative innovation, knowledge management effectiveness, Malaysian manufacturing firms


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Journal Article

Effective Online Teaching ‑ A book review  pp207-207

Dan Remenyi

© Mar 2012 Volume 10 Issue 2, ICICKM 2011, Editor: Vincent Ribière, pp110 - 207

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This Book review comments on Tina Stavredes' book, Effective Online Teaching, published by Jossey Bass, 2011.


Keywords: Book review, Effective online teaching, Tina Stavredes


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Journal Article

Crucial Role of Corporate Culture to Align Organizational Goals with Economic Success  pp241-250

Zdenka Gyurak Babelova, Jaromira Vanova

© Jul 2014 Volume 12 Issue 4, ECIC 2014, Editor: Dagmar Caganova, pp187 - 272

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Abstract: The success of enterprise is bounded with achievement of the set targets and progress of enterprise in accordance with its mission. Performance of any enterprise is determined by the level of performance of individual employees. Starting from se tting the objectives, from the strategic to the operational, procedures for their achievement, and the criteria for their evaluation, is the issue of performance management which is in consideration of industrial enterprise management in their day to day activities. Access to this issue affects the success of the enterprise on the market and its competitiveness. Objective indicators are supplemented by subjective evaluation of the representatives of the enterprise. Main challenge is to measure performance in the context of corporate culture, respectively to discover relations between corporate culture and the success of the enterprise. On the basis of the partial findings in this area, we have come to the conclusion about importance of relationship of cor porate culture and the success of the enterprise and the suitability to continue its investigations in more details. In this article we present results of our previous researches. Outcomes and conclusions, which we present in the paper, are based not o nly on theoretical knowledge, theories and results of published studies as well as several already completed results published under researches carried out by our institute but also on our researches focused on organizational performance.This contribution is a particular outcome of research project VEGA 1/0787/12 The identification of sustainable performance key parameters in industrial enterprises within multicultural environmentŽ and research project VEGA 1/0055/13 "Systematization of the impact of fac tors and conditions of knowledge management in the context of business strategy on work incentives and its reflection in growth efficiency, respectively sustainable level of business.


Keywords: Keywords: corporate culture, effectiveness measurements, indicators, performance management


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Journal Article

Knowledge Management and Sharing in Local Government: A Social Identity Theory Perspective  pp131-142

Nico Schutte, Nicolene Barkhuizen

© Aug 2015 Volume 13 Issue 2, Editor: Ken Grant, pp101 - 171

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Abstract: Service sectors, like local governments, offer various services to assist and develop communities and, as such, society at large. Therefore the interaction between people, knowledge, and technology play a vital role in attaining high service qua lity, economic development, and growth. Knowledge management (KM) techniques and tools can be applied in local government systems to improve service delivery and create service excellence. In addition a social identity theory perspective could give an i ndication of how local government officials categorise themselves in their social environment and as a salient group influence KM management and ‑sharing. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the extent to which social identity theory influ ences knowledge management and sharing in a South African local government institution. Semi‑structured interviews and focus groups were used to obtain data from 22 government officials. The findings highlight some of the issues interlinking KM with self‑ categorisation, group identity, and local government service delivery improvement, giving a framework for adopting KM in local government.


Keywords: Keywords: Knowledge management, social identity theory, knowledge sharing, learning organisation, public service, organisational effectiveness


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Journal Article

The Mediating Effects of Trustworthiness on Social‑Cognitive Factors and Knowledge Sharing in a Large Professional Service Firm  pp240-253

Max Evans, Anthony Wensley, Ilja Frissen

© Jan 2015 Volume 13 Issue 3, Guest Edited Issue, Editor: Dr. Juan-Gabriel Cegarra-Navarro and Dr. David Cegarra-Leiva, pp171 - 253

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Abstract: This paper extends the findings of a large empirical study of organizational information and knowledge sharing that examined the interplay of several notable social and cognitive factors, including trust, shared language, shared vision, tie stre ngth, homophily, and relationship length. Initial data analysis examined the direct, relative, and collective effects of these social and cognitive factors on organizational knowledge sharing factors (Evans, 2012). The results of this analysis demonstra ted that co‑worker trust influences, in a statistically significant way, each factor used to operationalize organizational knowledge sharing, namely: willingness to share knowledge, willingness to use knowledge, and perceived receipt of useful information /knowledge (Evans, 2013). This study presents the results of a secondary data analysis, which examines whether perceived trustworthiness in co‑workers acts as a mediating variable between the previously mentioned social‑cognitive variables and knowledge sharing factors. Data were collected from 275 knowledge workers (legal professionals and paralegals) engaged in shared legal project work, at one of Canadas largest multijurisdictional law firms. The nature of their work requires a significant relianc e on co‑workers, across offices nationwide, for both explicit and tacit information and knowledge. The nature of projects allows respondents to objectively evaluate the outcomes, gaining a better sense of the perceived effects of knowledge shared. A metho d put forward by Baron and Kenny (1986), which includes hierarchical multiple regression analysis, was used to test for the mediating effects of perceived co‑worker trustworthiness. The results of the study showed that the relationship between shared l anguage and shared vision on information and knowledge sharing is mediated through perceived trustworthiness. Moreover, this mediation is subject to the nature of the relationship between co‑workers. For shared language, the role of co‑worker relationship is still more nuanced as perceived trustworthiness was found to have a mediating effect between shared language and knowledge sharing in relationships between co‑workers with whom they worked well together on projects only. There is no apparent mediation of trust for shared language in negative co‑worker relationships, which demonstrates one of the few interesting effects found to be dependent on the nature of the co‑worker relationship.


Keywords: Keywords: mediating effects of trust, knowledge sharing in a large professional service firm


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Journal Article

Knowledge Transfer to Industry at Selected R1 Research Universities in North Carolina  pp3-16

Dennis Harlow

© May 2017 Volume 15 Issue 1, Learning and Unlearning for Sustainability, Editor: Sandra Moffett, pp1 - 58

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Public universities in the United States are divided into different levels of type by research agendas. Large public universities (typically known as R1 research oriented universities) are directed to serve the public interest by developing transferrable knowledge (patents and intellectual property) that can leverage the public investment made in these large universities and their research agendas through state and federal funding by enhancing social and commercial goals of the funding entities. This paper is an impact assessment of formal and informal industry collaboration and knowledge transfer activities study and looked at technology transfer offices, secondary information and public reports such as patent filings to determine if the level of knowledge transfers was increasing or decreasing or staying the same at three large public universities in the USA (North Carolina, UNC Charlotte and North Carolina State) and two North Carolina R1 private schools (Duke University and North Carolina State University. My primary hypothesis for the research was that much of the research and knowledge at public universities was not finding its way to industry use either through licensing or other means and that various methods (i.e., research papers) of transferring this knowledge were ineffective in making this transfer. My research concluded that despite strong state and federal funding of this research as well as private grants researchers tended to concentrate on research that enhanced their academic publications’ reputations which is resulting in fewer academic papers. The practical economic benefits of much of this research was doubtful since the correlation to outputs such as patents was not improving but plateauing over time in some cases.


Keywords: Knowledge transfer offices effectiveness; intellectual property; R1 universities


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Journal Issue

Volume 7 Issue 4, ECIC 2009 / Jul 2009  pp397‑534

Editor: Christiaan Stam, Daan Andriessen

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European Conference on Intellectual Capital

Today, almost 80% of economic value creation is based on intellectual resources. However, most organisations still do not know how to reveal the value of these resources and how to give direction to future value creation. The concept of intellectual capital gives intangible reources ‘a body’ and therefore makes it possible to measure, communicate and interpret them.

In June 1999 The Netherlands hosted the OECD international symposium on: ”Measuring and reporting intellectual capital; experiences, issues, and prospects”. This symposium turned out to be a milestone in the development of the intellectual capital movement. For the first time in history researchers and practitioners from all over the world joined together to discuss the progress made in the field of measurement and reporting of intellectual capital. Many of today’s IC initiatives are rooted in this OECD symposium (e.g. Danish Guideline, the MERITUM project and others). In 2009 it is ten years since this groundbreaking symposium took place and it is time to take stock of the developments over the last ten years. What progress did we make in raising awareness, developing robust measurement and reporting methods, and helping organisations to better manage their IC?

In April 2009 our Centre for Research in Intellectual Capital (CRIC) hosted the International Conference on Intellectual Capital (ECIC) in collaboration with Academic Conferences Ltd. The aim of this conference was to give a state‑of‑the‑art overview of intellectual capital measurement and management and contribute to the further advancement of IC theory and practice. The congress – which took place in Haarlem, The Netherlands – was attended by 150 participants from 37 countries. Based on almost 70 papers, we designed a conference program that consisted of more than 90 sessions. This special issue is based on a selection of the best papers of our conference.

Main programme

In our call for papers we invited researchers, practitioners and academics to present their research findings, work in progress, case studies and conceptual advances in the field of intellectual capital (IC) measurement and management.

From the main program of the conference we included two papers in this special issue. First, the paper by Durst and Gueldenberg, The meaning of intangible assets: new insights into company succession in SME’s. This paper was selected as best paper. This paper sheds an important new light on a growing problem within the European Union. It is based on the state of the art in IC theory, it uses a well describes mixed‑method methodology, contains a good discussion section that shows the importance but also some of the limitations of the research. The European Commission estimates that one third of all EU entrepreneurs will leave within the next ten years and the changing demography of the EU will reduce the pool of potential successors. This paper shows intangible assets have a remarkable influence on the external successor’s decision making, in particular brand, partners, key‑employees, knowledge retention and corporate culture. The second paper is a by Van Winkelen and McKenzie, Using scenarios to explore the potential for shifts in the relative priority of human, structural and relational capital in generating value. [samenvatten]

Special trends in the field

In addition to the general papers, the conference included papers on the following trends that we see in intellectual capital theory:

1. Benefits and limitations of the intellectual capital metaphor

2. Intellectual capital of nations, regions and cities

3. Social capital

4. The dynamics of intellectual capital

5. Intellectual capital for universities and research organisations

6. Measuring the effect of knowledge management

7. Measuring and reporting intellectual capital

8. IC centres across the globe

The mini track on the benefits and limitations of the IC metaphor resulted in five papers. The starting point of this mini track was that the concept of intellectual capital (IC) is based on the metaphor “Knowledge as Capital” (Andriessen, 2008). The way this works is that characteristics of the source domain of capital are used to describe the target domain of knowledge. These characteristics of capital include: capital is valuable and important, capital is an asset for the future and not an expenditure, capital can be capitalized, capital allows for a return and capital resonates with managers and CFO’s. In this track we explored the benefits and the limitations of capital as a metaphor for knowledge and other intangibles. From this track we included three papers: Andriessen et al., Pictures of Knowledge Management, developing a method for analyzing knowledge metaphors in visuals; Andriessen and Van den Boom, In search of alternative metaphors for knowledge: inspiration from symbolism; and Bratianu, The frontier of linearity in the intellectual capital metaphor.

The second mini track about IC of nations, regions and cities also generated five papers. Intellectual capital of nations is the concept that applies the principles of intellectual capital measurement on a macro‑economic level (Bonfour and Edvinsson, 2005). The main motivation for measuring the IC of nations is to get insight into the relative advantage of countries or regions. This insight should help to develop policy in order to give direction to future economic developments. From this track we included two papers in this special issue: Stam and Andriessen, Intellectual capital of the European Union 2008; and Yodmongkon and Chakpitak, Applying intellectual capital process model for creating a defensive protection system to local traditional knowledge: the case of Mea‑hiya community.

The third mini track about social capital included seven papers. Social capital in the form of networks of trust has value for individuals, teams and organizations. It is an indicator for economic success, measurable through constructs like trust, reciprocity, shared norms and values. Social capital is a popular paradigm in organizational studies. The use of social capital theory in the fields of business studies has increased exponentially in recent times. It offers new insight in explaining organisational dynamics, knowledge sharing, learning processes and innovation. While there is an extensive body of knowledge on the benefits of social capital, less attention has been paid to understanding how and why social capital evolves within organisational settings. It is interesting to gain insights into why social capital changes and what the effect is on knowledge sharing, knowledge productivity, learning processes and innovation. From this track we included one paper in this special issue: Tamilina, The impact of welfare state development on social trust formation: an empirical investigation.

The fourth mini track about The Dynamics of IC included four papers. Value in organizations is not created by intellectual assets as such, but by combining intellectual assets in a dynamic process (Andriessen, 2004). According to Kianto (Kianto, 2007), the dynamic dimension of IC relates mainly to three issues: 1) practice‑based approach to IC; 2) dynamics of IC‑based value creation; and 3) renewal, change and innovation of IC.

The fifth mini track about IC for universities and research organizations generated seven papers. In recent years, IC management and reporting have gained importance for research organisations and universities across Europe. Some university departments and research organisations have implemented IC reports and Austrian universities are even obliged by law to publish IC reports. IC management systems provide comparable information for the universities’ management but also for external stakeholders such as industrial partners or science and education policy. However, to exploit its potential in this sector, the specific characteristics of the science, research and innovation process should be addressed. IC management systems should enhance strategic development, innovativeness and knowledge sharing within research institutions and have to be linked to other instruments and tools for management and governance such as evaluation, performance measurement, and benchmarking.

The sixth mini track about measuring the effect of knowledge management included eight papers. A large variety of methods, models and practices for managing an organization’s knowledge assets have been produced by academics and practitioners. There are even different fields of research, e.g. knowledge management, intellectual capital and business intelligence, focusing on different types of knowledge and information management tasks. It seems clear that there is a need for many of these managerial tools. Also, it seems likely that the utilization of these tools would result in concrete business benefits. However, there is so far limited evidence of the actual impacts of knowledge management activities. In addition, it is not clear which management approach would provide the best results in a specific case. From this track we included the paper by Kujansivu and Lonnqvist, Measuring the effects of an IC development service: Case Pietari Business Campus.

The seventh mini track about measuring IC generated 13 papers. The measurement and assessment of intellectual capital and intangible assets is one of the most important and challenging issues for research and practice today. Many argue that without measures we can know nothing and understand nothing. Without measures we can’t do any research, organizations can’t manage their intangibles and they can’t produce meaningful IC statements. However, when it comes to measurement we are facing a real dilemma: we can’t really measure our intangibles in the same way we can measure tangible aspects of performance. When it comes to intangibles we often have to rely on proxy measures or need to find new ways of measuring performance (Marr, 2005). This in turn has important implications of how we can use those measures. From this track we included the paper by Cabrilo, IC‑based inter‑industry variety in Serbia. During the conference this paper received an honourable mention. The author of this paper comes from a research group that is very actively promoting intellectual capital within their developing country. She has produces some important contributions in the past. This paper gives us important new insights into the differences between industries regarding the importance of several intellectual capital components. The author was able to collect data from 642 managers from 80 firms with a response rate of 90% (!) making full use of her teams’ relational capital.

The eight mini track about IC centres across the globe included five papers. In more and more countries organisations are set up to stimulate intellectual capital management. Examples are The Arab Knowledge Economy Association, The developing China IC Support Network, CIP Gothenburg, The Hong Kong based Asia Pacific IC Centre, The IA Centre Scotland, The Indonesia IC Research Centre, InHolland University Centre for Research in IC (CRIC), Lund University IC Centre, The Taiwan IC Research Centre, The Croatian IC Research Centre, The Finland Futures Research Centre, The IP Academy of Singapore, and The Syrian Economic Business Centre. These organisations are driven in some cases predominantly by the desire to create new knowledge and in others by the desire to apply knowledge and IC to foster economic development. This track was set up to facilitate learning between people from all over the world who are involved with IC Centres. From this track we included the paper by Russel, Business model evolution in IA/IC support centres and their role in market making.

Finally, in addition to the academic mini tracks, we also organized a Doctoral Consortium. From this consortium we selected two papers for this special issue: Jaaskelainen, Identifying a suitable approach for measuring and managing public service productivity; and Kot, How to conduct the audit of intellectual capital in Polish tourism business?

Design‑based research as a promising methodology

We noticed an increase of papers that use a so called design‑based research as their research methodology (Andriessen, 2004; Van Aken, 2005; Stam, 2007). Design‑based research is a type of research methodology in which practical managerial tolls are designed and tested for their effect in real life cases. This is a powerful type of research as it addresses both the practical needs of organizations and the academic search for underlying theory. For example, the paper by Kot, included in this special issue, on How to conduct the audit of intellectual capital in polish tourism business, aims at designing an algorithm for an IC audit for Polish tourism companies that they can use to specify the IC structure and diagnose IC assets of their business. Other papers that use this methodology and that are included in this issue are the paper by Kujansivu and Lonnqvist on Measuring the effects of an IC development service: Case Pietari Business Campus, and the paper by Jaaskelainen, on Identifying a suitable approach for measuring and managing public service productivity. All three papers are good examples of how research in the field of IC can both benefit practice and academia when a Design‑Based Research methodology is used.


Andriessen, D. G. (2004), Making sense of intellectual capital, Elsevier Butterworth‑Heinemann, Amsterdam.

Andriessen, D. (2008) Stuff or Love, How metaphors direct our efforts to manage knowledge in organizations, Knowledge Management Research & Practice (2008) 6, 5–12

Bonfour, A. and Edvinsson, L. (2005), Intellectual capital for communities, Butterworth‑Heinemann. Elsevier, Oxford.

Kianto, A. (2007), ""What do we really mean by dynamic intellectual capital?"" International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital, Vol.4, No.4, pp.342‑356.

Marr, B. (2005), Perspectives on intellectual capital, Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, Burlington, MA.

Stam, C. D. (2007), ""Knowledge productivity. Designing and testing a method to diagnose knowledge productivity and plan for enhancement"", Ph.D. thesis, Universiteit Twente, Enschede.

Van Aken, J. E. (2005), ""Management research as a design science: articulating the research products of mode 2 knowledge production"", British Journal of Management, Vol.16, No.1, pp.19‑36.


Keywords: analysis, business models, capital, commercialisation, community, company succession, crowding-out, de-commodification, effect, European Union, IC audit, IC monitor, Indicator, intangible assets, intangibles, intellectual assets, intellectual capital, intellectual capital development, intellectual capital of nations, intellectual capital reporting, intellectual capital value driver, inter-industry variety, knowledge, linear space, linear thinking, linearity, Lisbon goals, Lisbon strategy for growth and job, market-making, measurement, metaphors, multidimensional value measurement, nonlinearity, performance measurement, Poland, productivity management, psychological contract, public services, scenarios, Serbia, small and medium-sized enterprises, strategic management, stratification, symbolism, Thailand, tourism, traditional knowledge, trust, visuals, welfare states


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