Keywords: innovation matrix, innovation index, measure of innovation, agricultural firms, innovation drivers, transactional model, knowledge management education, knowledge management curriculum, course design, experiential learning, student learning models, knowledge management faculty credentials, intellectual capital, human capital, structural capital, relationship capital, integrators, human capital, human resource value measurement, intangible assets, knowledge sharing, psychological capital, relational view of the firm, value adding web concept, absorptive capacity, social capital, tacit knowledge, knowledge use, knowledge transferability, knowledge strategy, knowledge codification, technological advancement, human intellectual capital, innovativeness, intangible assets, leadership, trust, vitality, innovating management, competitive intelligence, intellectual capital, intangible assets, knowledge economy, Brazil, oil and gas, SMEs, knowledge management, knowledge transfer, knowledge captu
Abstract: Measuring innovation is a notoriously difficult task. Agricultural firms present additional complications due to the complexities and uncertainties linked to the sector. Among the increasing literature available on innovation, there is plenty of information about innovation measurement in manufacturing industries, but scarce contributions for the case of agricultural firms. Currently there is no concerted and/or published methodology for innovations measurement for such firms. This research proposes a methodology for measuring innovation and its key determinants in agricultural firms, based on three main tools. The first one is the Innovation Matrix (IM), an approach to a structured catalogue of the technology in the agricultural subsector under study. IM includes information about innovation technological level, in terms of its place on the technological spectrum of the subsector. IM also includes information about the frequency of innovation, which refers to the degree of adoption of a particular innovation among the farmers. The second tool is the Innovation Index (II), a single number that combines information about the technological level and frequency of the observed innovations. The basic idea of II is to assign higher values to firms that implement either less frequent or comparatively advanced innovations, relative to the ones implemented by its competitors. Since II is always a real non‑negative number, it is possible to use OLS estimation procedures (third tool) to enquire about the factors driving innovation processes in agricultural firms. We have applied this methodology to four agricultural subsectors in Colombia. The II results reveal relatively small values for most of the surveyed producers. At the same time, they provide evidence to support the claim that there are just a few innovative leaders in every chain. In general, the factors determining innovation are subsector‑specific, but there are still some general stylized facts for the whole agricultural sector. The main consequence of this finding is that innovation policy design for the agricultural sector must take into account the existence of both sectorial (common) and subsector (specific) factors.
Keywords: innovation matrix, innovation index, measure of innovation, agricultural firms, innovation drivers, transactional model
A Case Study in Knowledge Management Education ‑ Historical Challenges and Future Opportunities pp199‑213
Abstract: In 2001 Kent State University established a graduate level program that granted a Master of Science degree in Information Architecture and Knowledge Management. The Knowledge Management concentration was a cornerstone of that degree program. The Knowledge Management concentration has sustained and thrived over the past ten years, though the path has not always been easy or clear. This case study describes the challenges encountered and the solutions developed over the past ten years. The case study discusses nineteen challenges and their solutions, in hopes that other institutions may benefit from Kent State University’s lessons learned and successes. The case study highlights issues that arise as an academic program matures, including: curriculum development and design, administrative support and alignment, faculty credentials and credibility, and research support.
Keywords: knowledge management education, knowledge management curriculum, course design, experiential learning, student learning models, knowledge management faculty credentials
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the Gordian Knot of the intellectual capital of the universities is the structural capital, and that unfolding it requires a deep understanding of the nature of structural capital This idea comes from a new perspective on the intellectual capital structure and on the relative importance of each component of it, i.e. human capital, structural capital and relational capital. Many authors consider that the human capital is the most important and by far the dominant component of the intellectual capital of the universities. Our research based on the new concept of organizational intellectual capital integrators showed that a university may have a great potential of the intellectual capital based on the human capital component, and yet not to perform competitively due to the weak integrators and stiff structural capital. In our view, an integrator is a powerful field of forces capable of combining two or more elements into a new entity, based on interdependence and synergy. These elements may have a physical or virtual nature, and they must posses the capacity of interacting in a controlled way. For any university these integrators have an intngible nature. The interdependence property is necessary for combining all elements into a system. The synergy property makes it possible to generate an extra energy or power from the working system. It makes the difference between a linear system and a nonlinear one. The Gordian Knot of the intellectual capital of universities is the structural capital. Only understanding the nature and the complexity of the structural capital we will be able to understand the full potential of the intellectual capital metaphor. Thus, the structural capital is the key component of the university intellectual capital and it is strongly related to the concepts of university governance and university autonomy. This paper is based on a conceptual research, a search of the literature, and on a solid experience one of the authors has got in the legislation and management of the university system of Romania, as a former General Director for Higher Education in the Ministry of Education and Research.
Keywords: intellectual capital, human capital, structural capital, relationship capital, integrators
Abstract: It is recognised and accepted by business leaders and academic scholars alike that people (human resources) are an organisation’s most critical assets in the contemporary knowledge economy. While this may be true, this rhetoric is often not matched by the reality of employment practices related to this important yet ambiguous resource. The purpose of this paper is to review the current situation with respect to the question of people as valuable resources in the intellectual capital and knowledge management paradigms. Our contention is that human resources pivotal to the success of modern business enterprises, irrespective of their sizes. This paper’s empirical basis is achieved by presenting research data made by the authors on the relationship between psychosocial variables and human resource practices on behaviours associated with intellectual capital and knowledge sharing. A positive relationship has been found between attitudes, subjective norms, and self‑efficacy on knowledge sharing behaviour. Besides this, a positive correlation was found between the concept of psychological capital and knowledge sharing. With respect to human resource practices, the paper includes a review of research undertaken on management’s perception on the importance of measuring human resources, some organisations’ attempts to achieve this, and the current barriers towards the measurement of value. Current research on the relationship of knowledge sharing and human resource practices is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion on the authors’ observations of the value of human resources in the current state of the theoretical and practical considerations of intellectual capital and knowledge sharing, and their suggestions on a way forward in this developing area of ICKM.
Keywords: human capital, human resource value measurement, intangible assets, knowledge sharing, psychological capital
Abstract: The paper addresses issues related to the confusion surrounding conceptual understanding of tacit knowledge and its transferability in organization's realm from an original perspective. Lately, at every level: country, industry and organization, attention to knowledge has intensified due to the realization that in "post‑capitalist society" (Drucker, 1993) knowledge is increasingly replacing traditional driving forces of economy: labor, capital and natural resources as the primary factor in economic growth. Knowledge use is now considered as imperative in all aspects of an organization. In literature there exist various typologies of knowledge, however, in organizational science most common classifications of knowledge include two general types: tacit and explicit. This paper brings clarity to the concept of tacit knowledge, nexus between tacit and explicit knowledge and effects of advances in technologies on the codification capability of tacit knowledge. It argues that many types of tacit knowledge that were considered as inexplicable just recently thanks to new technologies have become transferable. Drawing examples from knowledge science literature the author questions the rigid belief of some scholars in ineffability of tacit knowledge. The author also claims that organizations need to reassess their knowledge related strategy, particularly, in relation to tacit knowledge if they would like to develop sustainable competitive advantage from effective knowledge use. Findings: The author shows how new technologies are changing our perception of tacit knowledge and why it is time for organizations to reevaluate their knowledge strategy. Originality/Value: By showing a clear correlation between technological advancement and tacit knowledge transformability the paper contributes to the theoretical understanding of tacit knowledge.
Keywords: tacit knowledge, knowledge use, knowledge transferability, knowledge strategy, knowledge codification, technological advancement
Trust as Intangible Asset ‑ Enabling Intellectual Capital Development by Leadership for Vitality and Innovativeness pp244‑255
Abstract: Trust has become an essential intangible asset in organizations and leadership. Trust promotes social order and cooperation in workplace relationships. It is a resource that creates vitality and enables innovativeness. The paper discusses and examines the highly timely topic of trust from the human intellectual capital (HIC) perspective. More specifically, the focus is on the role trust plays in renewing intellectual capital by leadership. In the paper, trust is viewed in a relational context describing the positive expectations of a respectful human behaviour. Originality of the paper is based on the two ideas of both theoretical and practical significance. First, exploring and conceptualizing trust as intangible asset, resource and skill in organizations. Second, examining how trust in leadership enables HIC development and how it affects. The paper provides a novel view into managing intangibles, since trust as intellectual resource and a leadership skill in relation to HIC development have hardly been examined integrated. The main point highlights the importance of leadership by trust in enabling the growth and utilization of HIC. The paper advocates the idea that, in managing knowledge, it is important to increase understanding of the interaction among different aspects of KM. The value intangible assets, such as trust, add to human resource development (HRD) is multiple and still poorly understood. The paper presents also two real life case studies of how leadership by trust enables vitality and innovativeness in organizations. The case studies examine the sharing of tacit knowledge and co‑creation with customers.
Keywords: human intellectual capital, innovativeness, intangible assets, leadership, trust, vitality
How to Innovate Management Through Intellectual Capital Statements ‑ Lessons Learned From the First Implementations in Brazil pp256‑267
Abstract: Recent initiatives have shown that it is time to think about new ways of managing companies, particularly in emerging economies. Mertins et al (2012), points out that, “In the rapidly emerging Brazilian economy, intangible assets become a key success factor for sustainable growth”. As experiences in the fast moving city and state of Rio de Janeiro have shown, the development of systematic management procedures for these intangible assets is especially valuable for fast growing small and medium‑sized enterprises (SMEs) in order to serve as a solid backbone for an increasingly knowledge‑based economy. Another initiative described by Sequeira et al (2012) highlights that Brazil has been evolving into a knowledge society dealing with political changes, globalization, new technologies, and new global competitors, such as China. The need to enhance companies´ and, by extension, countries´ competitiveness has grown rapidly. It is, therefore, evident that organisations and particularly government policies need to redress some critical competitiveness issues, most notably the establishment of the Competitive Intelligence System as a strategic tool. Without such tool, organisations and the country will find it difficult to position themselves within the global marketplace. Taking into account the main conclusions of the two initiatives described above, and the unique circumstances of organically grown organizations in the Brazilian business environment, this paper discusses the challenge of integrating the Intellectual Capital Statement ‑ ICS into a comprehensive strategic change process. In order to promote sustainable business development in an emerging economy, the ICS has to be used to establish a continuous improvement cycle in the individual company, focusing on practical actions for maintaining and developing its intangible assets to ensure future competition capability.
Keywords: innovating management, competitive intelligence, intellectual capital, intangible assets, knowledge economy, Brazil, oil and gas, SMEs
Abstract: Knowledge transfer is a real challenge for organizations and particularly for those who have based their strategy on knowledge codification using knowledge engineering methods. These organizations are facing one major problem: their knowledge repository is used by few persons. Why? In this article, we identify barriers for transfer and appropriation of codified knowledge referential. We show that codified knowledge transfer should be a specific collaborative process taking into account three aspects: complexity and specificity of codified knowledge, readers’ profiles, and exchange channels. Then, we propose to improve knowledge transfer process by developing new specifications for the codified knowledge to increase its transferability and by elaborating a pertinent shared context for knowledge interpretation. It is an empirical methodology which optimizes continuity between knowledge codification and knowledge transfer.
Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge transfer, knowledge capture and codification, knowledge engineering, knowledge sharing, knowledge appropriation, organizational learning, organizational memories