Volume 3 Issue 2 / Dec 2005 pp65‑138
Keywords: Absorptive capacity, Capabilities, Case study, Coach, Computer-mediated communication, Developing countries, Dynamic learning, Email, Information and Communication Technologies, Innovation, Intangible Assets, Intellectual Capital, Inter-organizational project team management, Knowledge creation and sharing, Knowledge Economy, Knowledge management (KM), Knowledge management systems (KMS), Knowledge transfer, Lotka-Volterra system, Organizational Learning, Organizational receptivity, Organizational Relation, Resource-based view of the firm (RBV), Sustained competitive advantage, Virtual team
Coaching From Afar: How Ubiquitous Information Technology Was Used to Develop a Successful Semi‑Virtual Team pp65‑74
This study analyzed the communication between a national rowing team and their 'virtual coach' over a period of 18 months. An exploratory analysis of 1500+ emails provided insight into how the coach successfully leveraged ubiquitous information technology to build a high performance team. Zaccaro's (2002) framework of functional leadership and Weick and Robert's (1993) framework of collective mind were applied to understand the coach's approach for developing a non‑traditional semi‑ virtual team; the primary role of Coach was likened to that of "sense‑giver" given the charge of developing a "collective mind." This study works to illustrate how ubiquitous technology like e‑mails can be strategically used in the development of a high performing semi‑virtual team.
We are not only in a new millennium, but also in a new era: the knowledge era. Sustainable competitive advantage is dependent on building and exploiting core competencies. The resource‑based view (RBV) of the firm defines a strategic asset as one that is rare, valuable, imperfectly imitable and non‑substitutable. Knowledge is seen as a strategic asset with the potential to be a source of competitive advantage for an organization. In this paper, we provide a model that examines how and why knowledge management (KM) can be used to create competitive advantage from the RBV of the firm.
Keywords: Knowledge management, KM, knowledge management systems, KMS, resource-based view of the firm, RBV, sustained competitive advantage
Knowledge Generation in Developing Countries: A Theoretical Framework for Exploring Dynamic Learning in High‑technology Firms pp87‑96
In the case of events such as fundamental regulatory reforms or radical technological advances, firms have to undertake discontinuous or dynamic learning. Such learning involves the generation of new capacity through the acquisition of new knowledge and the combination of it with the firm's existing accumulated knowledge. In developing countries the challenge for firms to develop new competencies through dynamic learning is more complex due to political and economic complexities. This paper discusses the limitations of existing frameworks for analysing the process aspect of transformation and proposes a theoretical framework with which to explore dynamic learning in firms from developing countries. The proposed theoretical framework is based on a constructivist approach to organisational knowledge and uses the concept of absorptive capacity. The responses of large pharmaceutical firms to biotechnological change are used to illustrate the areas under investigation. The theoretical framework is used to explore the responses of Indian pharmaceutical firms to changes in patent law required by that country's accession to the World Trade Organisation (WTO). The cases show that the theoretical framework is comprehensive and useful for exploring firm level knowledge processes within firms from developing countries. However a broader analysis of firm‑level learning in developing countries should include an analysis of the institutional environment as this plays an important role in creating environment for firm based learning.
Knowledge Creation and Sharing in a Project Team: An Organizational Analysis Based on the Concept of Organizational Relation pp97‑106
In today's competitive arena, knowledge and intellectual assets management seems to be the best answer when looking to gain a competitive edge. Furthermore, traditional approaches to knowledge management based on a "single company perspective" are becoming limited; more frequently the problem is to manage "inter‑organizational "collaborations, projects and temporary structures. It is thus necessary to rethink some organizational topics (organizational structures design, personnel involvement and motivation mechanisms etc.) and to review them by introducing suitable and effective modifications with respect to specific knowledge processes. This paper takes the "Organizational Relational Approach" into consideration and applies a method for describing and interpreting the interactions among organizational actors‑ also belonging to different organizations‑ defined as Organizational Relations (OR): the method analyses these relations according to several distinct dimensions: the goals of the OR and the level of sharing for the organizational actors; the organizational rules regulating the behaviour of actors within the OR; the technological and organizational tools supporting the OR; the cultural background associated to the OR. Only when all four dimensions are highly developed is it possible to qualify the existing organizational relations as "rich "or, in this context, as "knowledge intensive" relations. The paper applies the Organizational Relations method of analysis to a successful case study of knowledge transfer from the aerospace field to the health care field. We examined the joint research project carried out by the ASI,‑Italian Space Agency‑ Ferrari DTM and two Italian Orthopaedics Departments. This project has led to the industrial production of an innovative external bone‑setting device. This analysis explains the key factors for success and the effectiveness of the managerial decisions that were adopted. Empirical findings derived from the case study analysis on one hand and results obtained from the application of the Organizational Relational Method on the other have been found to be convergent and this constitutes a good validation of the method used.
Keywords: Organizational Relation, Knowledge creation and sharing, Inter-organizational project team management, case study
The aim of this paper is to discuss which factors can be seen essentially affecting a company's learning ability through its organizational receptivity in inter‑organizational knowledge transfer. This will be done by developing a typology of the factors affecting company's organizational receptivity (and absorptive capacity) of new knowledge in inter‑organizational knowledge transfer. Yet, only after the pre‑conditions for the cooperation are created, it is the individuals' abilities and the organizational culture that can essentially affect the outcome.
Following the biological behaviour of a tree and its growth system, this paper proposes a model of valuation of the Intellectual Capital of an organization based on a variation of the classical Lotka‑Volterra equations system. The proposed model explains the growth of an organization as a consequence of its Intellectual Capital (increment of the surface of the roots), its Knowledge (the consumption of nutritious) and its Learning (fertility of the floor). And based on the proposed model, an example with real data is given.
Keywords: Intellectual Capital, Organizational Learning, Knowledge Management, Lotka-Volterra system
Towards the Knowledge Economy: the Technological Innovation and Education Impact on the Value Creation Process pp129‑138
Emerging as one of the most important corporate assets, there is evidence that, in some developed countries, the impact of knowledge capital in the GDP now surpasses the fixed capital. This paper uses quantitative data to broadly qualify the impact of the two main building blocks in the knowledge management integration process: information and communication technologies (ICT) and Education. The data analysis suggests that by providing efficient network platforms, knowledge can be captured, transformed and disseminated to individuals, groups and organisations. Investment in ICT seems to enable to connect people and support knowledge sharing and interpersonal interaction and therefore facilitate knowledge management processes and strategies. A case‑study of Portugal is used to illustrate the conclusions drawn.
Keywords: Knowledge Economy Knowledge Management Intangible Assets Information and Communication Technologies